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From DNA to protein – 3D
From DNA to protein – 3D
From DNA to protein – 3D
How do genes direct the production of proteins?: MedlinePlus Genetics 
Most genes contain the information needed to make functional molecules called proteins. (A few genes produce regulatory molecules that help the cell assemble proteins.) The journey from gene to protein is complex and tightly controlled within each cell
Together, transcription and translation are known as gene expression.. During the process of transcription, the information stored in a gene’s DNA is passed to a similar molecule called RNA (ribonucleic acid) in the cell nucleus
The type of RNA that contains the information for making a protein is called messenger RNA (mRNA) because it carries the information, or message, from the DNA out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm.. Translation, the second step in getting from a gene to a protein, takes place in the cytoplasm
9.4: Genetic Information 
Relate the structure of DNA to the storage of genetic information. The genetic information of an organism is stored in DNA molecules
But there are only four bases found in DNA: G, A, C, and T. The sequence of these four bases can provide all the instructions needed to build any living organism
But think about the English language, which can represent a huge amount of information using just 26 letters. Even more profound is the binary code used to write computer programs
Genes made Easy 
Scientists around the world are unravelling the mysteries of our genes. Exploring our genes reveals our past and our future, from the diseases you’re more likely to get, to where your ancestors came from
Before we can understand genes, we need to talk about cells ! Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things. Human cells are too tiny to see with the naked eye, but your body is made of 1,000,000,000,000s of them
For example, red blood cells carry the oxygen you breathe around your body.. FUN FACT: The biggest cell in the world is the Ostrich egg, it can be seen with your naked eye.
Ribosomes, Transcription, Translation 
This page has been archived and is no longer updated. The genetic information stored in DNA is a living archive of instructions that cells use to accomplish the functions of life
Although all of the cells that make up a multicellular organism contain identical genetic information, functionally different cells within the organism use different sets of catalysts to express only specific portions of these instructions to accomplish the functions of life.. When a cell divides, it creates one copy of its genetic information — in the form of DNA molecules — for each of the two resulting daughter cells
One factor that helps ensure precise replication is the double-helical structure of DNA itself. In particular, the two strands of the DNA double helix are made up of combinations of molecules called nucleotides
Chromosomal DNA and Its Packaging in the Chromatin Fiber 
By agreement with the publisher, this book is accessible by the search feature, but cannot be browsed.. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
The genomes of eucaryotes are divided up into chromosomes, and in this section we see how genes are typically arranged on each chromosome. In addition, we describe the specialized DNA sequences that allow a chromosome to be accurately duplicated and passed on from one generation to the next.
Each human cell contains approximately 2 meters of DNA if stretched end-to-end; yet the nucleus of a human cell, which contains the DNA, is only about 6 μm in diameter. This is geometrically equivalent to packing 40 km (24 miles) of extremely fine thread into a tennis ball! The complex task of packaging DNA is accomplished by specialized proteins that bind to and fold the DNA, generating a series of coils and loops that provide increasingly higher levels of organization, preventing the DNA from becoming an unmanageable tangle
Genes contain instructions for assembling what? 
Genes which are segment of DNA of a cell contains instructions for assembling proteins.. Who performs the task of capturing oxygen in the blood?
“All the plants and animals are composed of cells and the cell is the basic unit of life”. The given statement is for which of the following theories?
What is the junction between an axon ending with the dendrite of another nerve cell called?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Fact Sheet 
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that contains the biological instructions that make each species unique. DNA, along with the instructions it contains, is passed from adult organisms to their offspring during reproduction.
Because the cell is very small, and because organisms have many DNA molecules per cell, each DNA molecule must be tightly packaged. This packaged form of the DNA is called a chromosome.
At other times in the cell cycle, DNA also unwinds so that its instructions can be used to make proteins and for other biological processes. But during cell division, DNA is in its compact chromosome form to enable transfer to new cells.
Gene Therapy 
Gene therapy is a technique used in an effort to treat or prevent disease. When a gene mutation (a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence) causes a protein to be missing or faulty, gene therapy may be able to restore the normal function of that protein
– replacing the disease-causing sequence of a gene with a healthy copy of that sequence. The goal of gene therapy is to change the course of disease by targeting its genetic cause.
Genes contain the information needed to build and maintain cells by encoding proteins.. A gene is a small section of a cell’s DNA, consisting of four chemicals called bases
Lessons from the Human Genome Project 
The Human Genome Project, one of the most ambitious scientific projects ever undertaken, achieved a monumental goal: sequencing the entire human genome. Since its completion in 2003, this project has laid the groundwork for thousands of scientific studies associating genes with human diseases.
The order of these bases provides instructions for assembling the essential building blocks of life. A gene is a segment of DNA that contains instructions for one of these building blocks, such as a single protein
All humans share about 99.9% of this genome, and the remainder is variable (and 0.1% of 3 billion is still 3 million bases – nothing to sneeze at!). A spot in the genome that can differ between people (e.g., where some people have an A and others have a G) is called a single nucleotide polymorphism, or SNP (Figure 1)
Genes and Chromosomes 
Genes are contained in chromosomes, which are in the cell nucleus.. A chromosome contains hundreds to thousands of genes.
A trait is any gene-determined characteristic and is often determined by more than one gene.. Some traits are caused by mutated genes that are inherited or that are the result of a new gene mutation.
Proteins are not just building blocks for muscles, connective tissues, skin, and other structures. Enzymes are complex proteins that control and carry out nearly all chemical processes and reactions within the body