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Cast Irons and Steels
Cast Irons and Steels
Cast Irons and Steels
Cast iron 
Cast iron is a class of iron–carbon alloys with a carbon content more than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its color when fractured; white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, and ductile cast iron has spherical graphite “nodules” which stop the crack from further progressing.
Iron alloys with lower carbon content are known as steel.. Cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons
It is resistant to damage by oxidation but is notoriously difficult to weld.. The earliest cast-iron artefacts date to the 5th century BC, and were discovered by archaeologists in what is now Jiangsu, China
Cast iron | Definition, Composition, History, & Facts 
Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.. – fining pearlite gray iron white iron malleable cast iron
The liquid iron is cast, or poured and hardened, into crude ingots called pigs, and the pigs are subsequently remelted along with scrap and alloying elements in cupola furnaces and recast into molds for producing a variety of products.. The Chinese produced cast iron as early as the 6th century bce, and it was produced sporadically in Europe by the 14th century
During the 18th and 19th centuries, cast iron was a cheaper engineering material than wrought iron because it did not require intensive refining and working with hammers, but it was more brittle and inferior in tensile strength. Nevertheless, its load-bearing strength made it the first important structural metal, and it was used in some of the earliest skyscrapers
Cast Iron vs Cast Steel 
What’s the difference between cast iron and cast steel?. Casting offers exceptional capacity for design detail, often eliminating the need for additional fabrication and assembly
While cast iron and steel may appear similar on the surface, they each have distinct advantages and disadvantages from production to application. Understanding these advantages and disadvantages and choosing appropriately can mean the difference between unforgiving strength and durability and fractured or deformed parts that will quickly lose their luster.
In manufacturing, however, it’s not that simple—there are many different alloys and grades used in production. To understand them, it’s important to distinguish between the iron used in everyday products, and the scientific element iron (Fe)
[Solved] The carbon content of cast iron ranges from 
The carbon content of cast iron ranges from _______.. – Cast iron is an alloy of iron, carbon and silicon and it is hard and brittle.
– In general, the types of cast iron are (a) grey cast iron and (b) white cast iron (c) malleable cast iron etc. – Wrought iron is a very pure iron where the iron content is of the order of 99.5%.
– It is produced by re-melting pig iron and some small amount of silicon, sulphur, or phosphorus may be present.. – It is tough, malleable and ductile and can easily be forged or welded.
Metal Casting Resources 
A versatile metal, cast iron has many unique applications in the commercial and industrial world. The presence of iron in everyday life began in about 1200 BCE, encompassing a wide range of uses from farming implements to weapons of war
Every village and town would have a blacksmith’s shop, where sickles, plowshares, nails, swords, candlestick holders, and more were produced.. The discovery of iron’s value led to what has become known as the Iron Age, due to the dominance of this material in social and military applications
There are two major types of iron produced: wrought iron and cast iron. Within those, cast iron includes its own family of metals.
Carbon metal content, Classification of Steel and Alloy Steels 
Carbon metal content, Classification of Steel and Alloy Steels. Generally, carbon is the most important commercial steel alloy
But carbon also increases brittleness and reduces weldability because of its tendency to form martensite. This means carbon content can be both a blessing and a curse when it comes to commercial steel.
To put this in perspective, keep in mind that’s 35/100 of 1 percent.. Now, any steel in the 0.35 to 1.86 percent carbon content range can be hardened using a heat-quench-temper cycle
US5043028A – High silicon, low carbon austemperable cast iron – Google Patents 
US5043028A – High silicon, low carbon austemperable cast iron – Google PatentsHigh silicon, low carbon austemperable cast iron Download PDF. – US5043028A US5043028A US07/515,243 US51524390A US5043028A US 5043028 A US5043028 A US 5043028A US 51524390 A US51524390 A US 51524390A US 5043028 A US5043028 A US 5043028A
Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.). – C21D—MODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g
– C22C37/10—Cast-iron alloys containing aluminium or silicon. An austemperable cast iron which includes an ausferritic matrix, the cast iron having a silicon content of from about 1.6 to about 2.4 weight percent, and a carbon content of from about 1.6 to about 2.2 weight percent, such that the carbon equivalent of the cast iron is from about 2.1 to about 3.0 weight percent
Molybdenum alloying in cast iron and steel 
Metal casting is an important manufacturing technology for efficiently producing massive components with complex shape. A large share of industrial castings is made from iron and steel alloys, combining attractive properties and low production cost
Molybdenum is an important alloying element in that respect, increasing strength, hardness and toughness. It also facilitates particular heat treatments such as austempering
Casting technology is very attractive for producing industrial components as well as everyday-life household items. Since castings are manufactured to near-net shape, intensive machining is not required resulting in cost-efficient production of complex-shaped items
Up to now, the iron-carbon phase diagram has only been considered up to a carbon content of 2.06 %. If this carbon content is exceeded, further phase transformations occur
Iron materials below 2.06 % carbon consist of a eutectoid based microstructure (pearlite) and above 2.06 % of a eutectic based microstructure (ledeburite).. In principle, this also results in other material properties
For example, ferrous materials with a lower carbon content than 2.06 % are referred to as steels and ferrous materials over 2.06 % as cast iron.. Steel has a pearlitic (eutectoid) based microstructure and cast iron a ledeburitic (eutectic) based microstructure!
Low vs Medium vs High-Carbon Steel 
Steel is often categorized according to its carbon content. After all, steel is defined as an alloy of iron and carbon
By adding carbon to it, the metal becomes stronger and harder. This is why many manufacturing and construction companies prefer steel over conventional iron.
Some steel has a higher ratio of carbon to iron than others. Specifically, there are three types of steel, including low-carbon, medium-carbon and high-carbon steel