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Bosnian crisis of 1908 | Austro-Hungarian, Serbia & Montenegro [1]

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.. Bosnian crisis of 1908, state of severe international tension caused by the annexation by Austria-Hungary of the Balkan provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Still, the Austrian administration tried mightily and at great expense to improve the strategically valuable region economically and to link it closely with Austria-Hungary. When in July 1908 the Young Turks staged a revolution in Constantinople (now Istanbul), established a constitutional government, and inaugurated a reform program, the Austrian foreign minister Graf (count) Lexa von Aehrenthal resolved to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina before the new Turkish regime could regain control over them.
16, 1908, Izvolsky agreed that Russia would not object to the annexation. Aehrenthal pledged that in return Austria would not object to opening the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits to Russian warships, an advantage that had been denied to Russia since 1841

Question of Palestine [2]

Origins and Evolution of the Palestine Problem: 1917-1947 (Part I). The question of Palestine was brought before the United Nations shortly after the end of the Second World War.
These events led to a League of Nations decision to place Palestine under the administration of Great Britain as the Mandatory Power under the Mandates System adopted by the League. In principle, the Mandate was meant to be in the nature of a transitory phase until Palestine attained the status of a fully independent nation, a status provisionally recognized in the League’s Covenant, but in fact the Mandate’s historical evolution did not result in the emergence of Palestine as an independent nation.
This assumed special significance because, almost five years before receiving the mandate from the League of Nations, the British Government had given commitments to the Zionist Organization regarding the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine, for which Zionist leaders had pressed a claim of “historical connection” since their ancestors had lived in Palestine two thousand years earlier before dispersing in the “Diaspora”.. During the period of the Mandate, the Zionist Organization worked to secure the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine

Ottoman Empire – WWI, Decline & Definition [3]

The Ottoman Empire was one of the mightiest and longest-lasting dynasties in world history. This Islamic-run superpower ruled large areas of the Middle East, Eastern Europe and North Africa for more than 600 years
While Western Europeans generally viewed them as a threat, many historians regard the Ottoman Empire as a source of great regional stability and security, as well as important achievements in the arts, science, religion and culture.. Osman I, a leader of the Turkish tribes in Anatolia, founded the Ottoman Empire around 1299
The Ottoman Turks set up a formal government and expanded their territory under the leadership of Osman I, Orhan, Murad I and Bayezid I.. In 1453, Mehmed II the Conqueror led the Ottoman Turks in seizing the ancient city of Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire’s capital

Russian entry into World War I [4]

This article’s tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. The Russian Empire gradually entered World War I during the three days before July 28, 1914
Russia sent an ultimatum, via Saint Petersburg, to Vienna, warning Austria-Hungary not to attack Serbia. Following the invasion of Serbia, Russia began to mobilize the reserve army on the border of Austria-Hungary
There was no response, which resulted in the German declaration of war on Russia on the same day (August 1, 1914). Per its war plan, Germany disregarded Russia and moved first against France, declaring war on August 3

Concert of Europe (The) [5]

The Concert of Europe was a particular expression of an international system founded on balance. It was established in Vienna in 1815, and collapsed a century later with the beginning of the Great War
The Concert brought together “all of the major powers, and only the major powers” (Jean-Baptiste Duroselle); during the Congress of Vienna in 1814-1815, there were five such powers who considered themselves to be mutually worthy of belonging to it: Great Britain, which imposed itself in the wake of the Napoleonic wars as the world’s first power, Russia, Austria, Prussia, and France, who even if defeated remained a central part of the system and, as such, was invited to participate in the negotiations. A century later, Germany succeeded Prussia, and Italy joined the “club,” but not without difficulty; the composition of the Concert thus remained surprisingly stable throughout the entire period, which contributed to the system’s effectiveness.
These new multilateral practices, which found expression in congresses, conferences and meetings, did not rely—as was to be the case for the LN or the UN—on written rules or permanent structures, but on arrangements that combined flexibility and pragmatism. As the work of Paul Schroeder and Georges-Henri Soutou has shown, they also relied on a base of common values and shared references (Christianity, the monarchical principle, as well as certain liberal values arising from the first-half of the eighteenth century) that facilitated negotiation, and that gave the Concert an “organic” character quite apart from a simple mechanism of balance.

Bosnian Crisis [6]

The Bosnian Crisis, also known as the Annexation Crisis (German: Bosnische Annexionskrise; Serbo-Croatian: Aneksiona kriza, Анексиона криза) or the First Balkan Crisis, erupted on 5 October 1908[1] when Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina,[a] territories formerly within the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire but under Austro-Hungarian administration since 1878.[9]. This unilateral action—timed to coincide with Bulgaria’s declaration of independence from the Ottoman Empire on 5 October—sparked protestations from all the Great Powers and Austria-Hungary’s Balkan neighbors, Serbia and Montenegro
Although the crisis ended with what appeared to be a total Austro-Hungarian diplomatic victory, it permanently damaged relations between Austria-Hungary and its neighbors, especially Serbia, Italy and Russia, and in the long term helped lay the grounds for World War I.[10] Austro-Serbian relations – harmed by the annexation’s inflaming of Serbian nationalists[11] – continued to be strained to the point of declaring war on each other in 1914.[12]. The mid-1870s witnessed a series of violent rebellions against Ottoman rule in the Balkans, and equally violent and repressive responses from the Turks
In the Budapest Conventions of 1877, the two powers agreed that Russia would annex Bessarabia, and Austria-Hungary would observe a benevolent neutrality toward Russia in the pending war with the Turks. As compensation for this support, Russia agreed to Austria-Hungary’s control of Bosnia-Herzegovina.[13]

Alois Lexa von Aehrenthal [7]

Alois Leopold Johann Baptist Graf[1] Lexa von Aehrenthal (27 September 1854 – 17 February 1912) was diplomat from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Biographer Solomon Wank says he exuded a strong monarchical-conservative outlook, loyalty to the Empire, and optimism regarding its ability to survive and flourish in the early 20th century
As Imperial Foreign Minister, Aehrenthal formulated and executed the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and their integration into the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1908. With the annexation he sought to permanently block in the Balkan south of the Empire the emergence of inter- and intra-ethnic nationalisms amongst the multiplicity of peoples there on the basis of their shared religious beliefs and ethnic affiliations
Seeking to limit objections in Russia to any support for the annexation, Aehrenthal began secret negotiations with Russian foreign minister Alexander Izvolsky. The annexation ultimately damaged Austro-Russian collaboration on settling Balkan questions

Upheaval in the Balkans. Kaiser Wilhelm and the Bosnian annexation crisis of 1908 to 1909 (Chapter twenty-six) [8]

– Chapter two The Kaiser and England during the Boer War. – Chapter three ‘I am the balance of power in Europe.’ Wilhelm between Britain, Russia and France
– Chapter five The shabby compromise: Wilhelm II and Bülow’s Chancellorship. – Chapter six Wilhelm II and the Germans, 1900 to 1904
– Chapter eight The Anglo-German antagonism: the Kaiser, the King and public opinion. – Chapter ten Uncle and nephew: Edward VII and the ‘encirclement’ of Germany

Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia-Herzegovina [9]

On October 6, 1908, the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary announces its annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, dual provinces in the Balkan region of Europe formerly under the control of the Ottoman Empire.. Though Bosnia and Herzegovina were still nominally under the control of the Ottoman Sultan in 1908, Austria-Hungary had administered the provinces since the Congress of Berlin in 1878, when the great powers of Europe awarded the Dual Monarchy the right to occupy the two provinces, with the legal title to remain with Turkey
To make matters more complicated, the largely Slavic population of the two provinces had nationalist ambitions of their own, while their fellow Slavs in nearby Serbia yearned to annex them to further their pan-Slavic ambitions.. When rebellion by the Committee of Union and Progress—the so-called Young Turks—took the Ottoman government by storm in 1908, Baron Aloys von Aerenthal, foreign minister of Austria-Hungary, saw his empire’s chance to assert its dominance in the Balkans
The announcement in October 1908 of Austria-Hungary’s annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina upset the fragile balance of power in the Balkans, enraging Serbia and pan-Slavic nationalists throughout Europe. Though weakened Russia was forced to submit, to its humiliation, its foreign office still viewed Austria-Hungary’s actions as overly aggressive and threatening, despite Aerenthal’s assurances that he did not plan to take Macedonia, another disputed former Ottoman province, next

United KingdomsMultinational Union States in Europe and Beyond, 1800-1925 [10]

3 European Unions and Beyond: Case StudiesGet access. The chapter identifies a range of multinational union polities beyond Britain and Ireland: the Netherlands, Sweden-Norway, Canada, Austria-Hungary
The chapter argues that these united kingdoms were often connected by legacies of composite monarchy and by shared origins in the context of warfare and insurgency. It argues that, while these unions had different histories, they were often supported by British diplomatic endeavour; and, moreover, they shared a wider variety of characteristics and features
It argues that for all a capacity to adapt was important to their survival and longevity.. – Sign in with a library card Sign in with username / password Recommend to your librarian

Gul Tokay, ‘ The Origins of the Balkan Wars: A Reinterpretation’, in H. Yavuz and I. Blumi (eds.), War and Nationalism The Balkan Wars, 1912–1913 and Their Sociopolitical Implications ( Utah: Utah Uni [11]

To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser.. Conflict and International Politics before the Outbreak of the First World WarOttoman diplomacy, the Balkan Wars and the Great Powers
Hall’s splendid groundbreaking work The Balkan Wars, 1912–1913 it is impossible to find a comprehensive single-volume history in English of the diplomatic and military history of these wars. Nevertheless, the battles of these wars were the largest fought in Europe between 1870 and 1914.
(Includes Introduction authored by Blumi and Yavuz to the larger volume) War and Nationalism presents thorough up-to-date scholarship on the often misunderstood and neglected Balkan Wars of 1912 to 1913, which contributed to the outbreak of World War I. The wars represented a pivotal moment that had a long-lasting impact on the regional state system and fundamentally transformed the beleaguered Ottoman Empire in the process

World History Chapter 19 [12]

Which of the following did NOT play a crucial role in making Britain the site of the first Industrial Revolution?. Over ninety-five percent of the population was literate.
Britain becoming by far the world’s leading IRON producer.. Great Britain depended almost entirely upon foreign investment to support its Industrial Revolution at the beginning.
Children were discouraged from working in cotton mills because their smaller size did not allow them to move among the machines and they were too difficult to train to do complex factory work.. The Second Industrial Revolution opened the door to new jobs for women, particularly in service or white-collar jobs

the territory annexed by austria in 1908, which enraged serbia, was
12 the territory annexed by austria in 1908, which enraged serbia, was Guides


  1. https://www.britannica.com/event/Bosnian-crisis-of-1908
  2. https://www.un.org/unispal/history2/origins-and-evolution-of-the-palestine-problem/part-i-1917-1947/#:~:text=The%20disintegration%20of%20the%20Ottoman,of%20the%20declining%20Ottoman%20Empire.
  3. https://www.history.com/topics/middle-east/ottoman-empire#:~:text=After%20a%20revolt%2C%20Greece%20won,all%20its%20territories%20in%20Europe.
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_entry_into_World_War_I#:~:text=However%2C%20Russia%20had%20yielded%20French,Hungary%20if%20it%20invaded%20Serbia.
  5. https://ehne.fr/en/encyclopedia/themes/europe-europeans-and-world/organizing-international-system/concert-europe#:~:text=The%20Concert%20of%20Europe&text=From%201815%20to%201914%2C%20the,Europe%20from%20another%20broad%20conflict.
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bosnian_Crisis
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alois_Lexa_von_Aehrenthal
  8. https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/wilhelm-ii/upheaval-in-the-balkans-kaiser-wilhelm-and-the-bosnian-annexation-crisis-of-1908-to-1909/290631298155F460BDC86AEA718DB724
  9. https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/austria-hungary-annexes-bosnia-herzegovina
  10. https://academic.oup.com/book/46680/chapter/410162861
  11. https://www.academia.edu/20481541/Gul_Tokay_The_Origins_of_the_Balkan_Wars_A_Reinterpretation_in_H_Yavuz_and_I_Blumi_eds_War_and_Nationalism_The_Balkan_Wars_1912_1913_and_Their_Sociopolitical_Implications_Utah_Utah_University_Press_2013_pp_176_196
  12. https://subjecto.com/flashcards/world-history-chapter-19/
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