12 which of the following is an effect of cold at the cellular level? Advanced Guides

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Boston Children’s Hospital [1]

Named for the French medical student who first described it in 1862, Raynaud’s (pronounced “ray-nodes”) phenomenon is a rare condition in which blood vessels react in an exaggerated way (called a vasospasm) to cold or emotional stress. You may also see the terms “Raynaud’s disease” and “Raynaud’s syndrome,” but they’re misleading
When we’re hot, we get flushed as small blood vessels under the skin widen (dilate) to bring blood close to the surface and let its warmth escape. But when we’re cold, those blood vessels narrow (constrict) to preserve warmth inside for our brain, heart and other vital organs.
The vessels clamp down in what’s called a vasospastic attack, blocking the blood flow and causing the skin in the affected area to:. – turn blue (called cyanosis), as the blood’s oxygen level drops

Therapeutic Modalities [2]

Physical Modalities are manually applied agents that yield a specific therapeutic response. This review focuses on both commonly and uncommonly used physical modalities including heat (superficial and deep), cold, sound, electricity, mechanical forces, and light.
Superficial heat penetration is usually less than 1 cm.1,62 In contrast, the use of deep heat penetration is up to about 3-5 cm.62. – Commonly used superficial heat modalities include hot packs, heating pads, paraffin bath, infrared, ultrasound, and fluidotherapy.
Convection is transfer of heat by fluid circulation (liquid or gas) over the surface of a body (example: fluidotherapy). Conversion is changing of one energy form into another (example: ultrasound, radiant heat).

Section B: Energy Transfer – Energy Education: Concepts and Practices [3]

The two ways that energy can be transferred are by doing work and by heat transfer.. Energy can be transferred from one object to another by doing work
When work is done, energy is transferred from the agent to the object, which results in a change in the object’s motion (more specifically, a change in the object’s kinetic energy).. An Example of How Doing Work Transfers Energy from One Object to Another
Recall that the work done on the wheelbarrow by the person is equal to the product of the person’s force multiplied by the distance traveled by the wheelbarrow. Notice that when the force is exerted on the wheelbarrow, there’s a change in its motion

Effects of Mild Cold Shock (25°C) Followed by Warming Up at 37°C on the Cellular Stress Response [4]

Temperature variations in cells, tissues and organs may occur in a number of circumstances. We report here that reducing temperature of cells in culture to 25°C for 5 days followed by a rewarming to 37°C affects cell biology and induces a cellular stress response
The expression of cold shock genes, CIRBP and RBM3, was increased at 25°C and returned to basal level upon rewarming while that of heat shock protein HSP70 was inversely regulated. An activation of pro-apoptotic pathways was evidenced by FACS analysis and increased Bax/Bcl2 and BclXS/L ratios
However, a large proportion of cells were dying 24 hours after rewarming. The occurrence of DNA damage was evidenced by the increased phosphorylation of p53 and H2AX, a hallmark of DNA breaks

Cross-Adaptation: Heat and Cold Adaptation to Improve Physiological and Cellular Responses to Hypoxia [5]

To prepare for extremes of heat, cold or low partial pressures of oxygen (O2), humans can undertake a period of acclimation or acclimatization to induce environment-specific adaptations, e.g. heat acclimation (HA), cold acclimation (CA), or altitude training
Cross-adaptation is a term used to describe the phenomenon whereby alternative environmental interventions, e.g. HA or CA, may be a beneficial alternative to altitude interventions, providing physiological stress and inducing adaptations observable at altitude
CA appears to improve physiological responses to altitude by attenuating the autonomic response to altitude. While no cross-acclimation-derived exercise performance/capacity data have been measured following CA, post-HA improvements in performance underpinned by aerobic metabolism, and therefore dependent on O2 delivery at altitude, are likely

Cryotherapy [6]

Cryotherapy, also known as ice application, is the simplest and oldest way to treat injuries. Its worldwide use spread because of its effectiveness, convenience, low cost and ease of transportation
It also decreases oedema, nerve conduction velocities, cellular metabolism and local blood flow. The effect of the cryotherapy depends on the method, the duration, temperature of the ice and the depth of the subcutaneous fat
It was discovered that wetted ice is better to lower surface temperature during treatment and maintaining the lower temperature during recovery. It is also more effective in lowering the intramuscular temperature during treatment.

Angiostatic freeze or angiogenic move? Acute cold stress prevents angiokine secretion from murine myotubes but primes primary endothelial cells for greater migratory capacity [7]

Volume 13 – 2022 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.975652. Angiostatic freeze or angiogenic move? Acute cold stress prevents angiokine secretion from murine myotubes but primes primary endothelial cells for greater migratory capacity
The skeletal muscle tissue can adapt to exercise and environmental stressors with a remarkable plasticity. Prolonged cold stress exposure has been associated to increased skeletal muscle capillarization
Two cell types are central to angioadaptation: the myocytes, representing an important source of angiokines; and the skeletal muscle endothelial cell (SMECs), targets of these angiokines and main constituents of muscle capillaries. The influence of cold stress on skeletal muscle angioadaptation remains largely unknown, particularly with respect to myocyte-specific angiokines secretion or endothelial cell angioadaptive responses

Effects of winter swimming on haematological parameters [8]

Winter swimming (WS), is a cold-based activity practised during wintertime in frozen rivers, lakes or sea and, it is mainly practised in Northern countries that are characterized by long winters and low temperature averages (1). WS is rarely performed in Mediterranean countries, although in some regions a continental climate is dominant, including very low winter temperatures and icing of lakes and rivers
Other than the recreational aspect of this activity, WS and the whole-body cryotherapy treatment are peculiar cold-based procedures for fitness able to improve general well-being, but they are also considered to be effective in reinforcing against respiratory tract infections and relieving from musculoskeletal pains (2). Indeed cold-based procedures have long been used to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms, to reduce muscular discomfort and to improve recovery following muscle traumas accounting for the intrinsic analgesic effects (3,4), although an universal acceptance as a real therapy is not still achieved.
However, the conditioning efficiency depends on physical characteristics, intensity and duration of the exposure (5).. We have previously demonstrated that whole-body cryotherapy did not enhance haematological values, as judged from haemoglobin concentrations and the number of erythrocytes, reticulocytes, leukocytes, and platelets (6); the treatment was beneficial for muscle recovery following regular training and, at the same time, it induced a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines (7)

Side Effects of a Bone Marrow Transplant (Stem Cell Transplant) [9]

A bone marrow transplant is a medical treatment that replaces your bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells. It is also called a stem cell transplant or, more specifically, a hematopoietic stem cell transplant
Like any cancer treatment, it can cause side effects. These side effects can be different for everyone and depend on the type of transplant you receive, your general health, and other factors.
This includes short-term side effects that are expected to go away over time, as well as side effects that may occur later, last longer, or be permanent. This will help you feel more prepared and supported if a side effect does occur.

How is the cell membrane affected by temperature? [10]

Cells and cell membranes function best at normal physiological temperatures. Both higher and lower temperatures affect various aspects of the cell membrane including its structure and permeability
Higher temperatures increase fluidity and permeability. Too high or too low temperatures can cause serious damage to the cell and the cell membrane
– At temperatures slightly higher than the physiological temperature, the fatty acid tails of the phospholipids become less rigid and the phospholipids have enough kinetic energy to overcome the intermolecular forces that hold the membrane together. This increases membrane fluidity as well as its permeability

Cold temperature extends longevity and prevents disease-related protein aggregation through PA28γ-induced proteasomes [11]

Aging is a primary risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders that involve protein aggregation. Because lowering body temperature is one of the most effective mechanisms to extend longevity in both poikilotherms and homeotherms, a better understanding of cold-induced changes can lead to converging modifiers of pathological protein aggregation
This proteasome activator is required for cold-induced longevity and ameliorates age-related deficits in protein degradation. Moreover, cold-induced PA28γ/PSME-3 diminishes protein aggregation in C
Notably, exposure of human cells to moderate cold temperature (36 °C) also activates trypsin-like activity through PA28γ/PSME3, reducing disease-related protein aggregation and neurodegeneration. Together, our findings reveal a beneficial role of cold temperature that crosses evolutionary boundaries with potential implications for multi-disease prevention.

Cold Environments – General [12]

– Why should we be concerned about working in the cold?. – How do we produce and retain heat within the body?
– Are there any factors that determine an individual’s response to the cold?. Why should we be concerned about working in the cold?Back to top
It is critical that the body be able to preserve core body temperature steady at + 37°C (+ 98.6°F). This thermal balance must be maintained to preserve normal body functioning as well as provide energy for activity (or work!)

which of the following is an effect of cold at the cellular level?
12 which of the following is an effect of cold at the cellular level? Advanced Guides


  1. https://www.childrenshospital.org/conditions/raynaud-phenomenon#:~:text=Named%20for%20the%20French%20medical,to%20cold%20or%20emotional%20stress.
  2. https://now.aapmr.org/therapeutic-modalities/#:~:text=Physiologic%20effects%3A%20Thermal%20energy%20(high,and%20elasticity%20of%20connective%20tissues.
  3. https://www3.uwsp.edu/cnr-ap/KEEP/nres633/Pages/Unit2/Section-B-Energy-Transfer.aspx#:~:text=Convection%20is%20the%20movement%20of,air%20is%20called%20a%20current.
  4. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0069687
  5. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40279-017-0717-z
  6. https://www.physio-pedia.com/Cryotherapy
  7. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2022.975652
  8. https://www.biochemia-medica.com/en/journal/21/1/10.11613/BM.2011.014
  9. https://www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/how-cancer-treated/bone-marrowstem-cell-transplantation/side-effects-bone-marrow-transplant-stem-cell-transplant
  10. https://www.aatbio.com/resources/faq-frequently-asked-questions/how-is-the-cell-membrane-affected-by-temperature
  11. https://www.nature.com/articles/s43587-023-00383-4
  12. https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/phys_agents/cold/cold_general.html
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