14 which type of map or diagram would best indicate elevation of the land surface? Tutorial

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What is a topographic map? [1]

The distinctive characteristic of a topographic map is the use of elevation contour lines to show the shape of the Earth’s surface. Elevation contours are imaginary lines connecting points having the same elevation on the surface of the land above or below a reference surface, which is usually mean sea level
USGS topographic maps also show many other kinds of geographic features including roads, railroads, rivers, streams, lakes, boundaries, place or feature names, mountains, and much more. Older maps (published before 2006) show additional features such as trails, buildings, towns, mountain elevations, and survey control points
The phrase “USGS topographic map” can refer to maps with a wide range of scales, but the scale used for all modern USGS topographic maps is 1:24,000. That covers a quadrangle that measures 7.5 minutes of longitude and latitude on all sides, so these are also referred to as 7.5-minute maps, quadrangle maps, or “quad” maps (modern topographic maps for Alaska have a scale of 1:25,000 and cover a variable distance of longitude)

Elevation [2]

Earth Science, Geology, Geography, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Physical Geography. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit
For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. If you have questions about licensing content on this page, please contact ngimageco[email protected] for more information and to obtain a license
When you reach out to him or her, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource.. If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer

Stratigraphic column [3]

A stratigraphic column is a representation used in geology and its subfield of stratigraphy to describe the vertical location of rock units in a particular area. A typical stratigraphic column shows a sequence of sedimentary rocks, with the oldest rocks on the bottom and the youngest on top.
However, in these cases, the stratigraphic column must either be a structural column, in which the units are stacked with respect to how they are observed in the field to have been moved by the faults, or a time column, in which the units are stacked in the order in which they were formed.. Stratigraphy is a branch of geology that concerns the order and relative position of geologic strata and their relationship to the geologic time scale
The columns can include igneous and metamorphic rocks, however, sedimentary rocks are important geologically because of Classical Laws of Geology and how they relate to the accumulation of sediments and the formation of sedimentary environments. Lithology is a study of bedrock that occurs at a specific location

Evolutionary tree (article) [4]

How to read phylogenetic trees and determine which species are most related.. – A phylogenetic tree is a diagram that represents evolutionary relationships among organisms
– The pattern of branching in a phylogenetic tree reflects how species or other groups evolved from a series of common ancestors.. – In trees, two species are more related if they have a more recent common ancestor and less related if they have a less recent common ancestor.
Rotating a tree about its branch points doesn’t change the information it carries.. Not necessarily things like closets or rooms; I personally score low on the organization front for both of those things

Contour Maps – A guide [5]

Contour lines are the faint red-brown lines drawn on a map connecting points of equal elevation above sea level, meaning if you physically followed a contour line, the elevation (height of the land) would remain the same. Contour lines show elevation and the shape of the terrain
In other words, contour lines show the topography of the land. Understanding contours is a skill that will allow you to look at a map and picture the hill, with depressions for streams, hills and thin mountain ridges, etc
Download 1m Contours of the UK for CAD software here. Contour lines are critical to understanding the elevation profile of your terrain or a particular land formation

Reading: Maps [6]

Maps are as important in geology as written texts are in the study of literature. By studying maps, a geologist can see the shape and geology of the earth’s surface and deduce the geological structures that lie hidden beneath the surface
Many geologists have experience mapping some part of the earth’s surface.. You are not expected to become a geological expert in reading maps
A topographic map (like the one in figure 1) is one type of map used by geologists. Topographic maps show the three-dimensional shape of the land and features on the surface of the earth

Terrain cartography [7]

Terrain cartography or relief mapping is the depiction of the shape of the surface of the Earth on a map, using one or more of several techniques that have been developed. Terrain or relief is an essential aspect of physical geography, and as such its portrayal presents a central problem in cartographic design, and more recently geographic information systems and geovisualization.
They are seldom used today except as part of an “antique” styling.. Lobeck published A Physiographic Diagram of the United States, using an advanced version of the hill profile technique to illustrate the distribution of landforms on a small-scale map.[1] Erwin Raisz further developed, standardized, and taught this technique, which uses generalized texture to imitate landform shapes over a large area.[2] A combination of hill profile and shaded relief, this style of terrain representation is simultaneously idiosyncratic to its creator—often hand-painted—and found insightful in illustrating geomorphological patterns.
The effect is to make mountains “stand up” and “lay over” features to the north, in the same fashion as hill profiles. Some viewers are able to see the effect more easily than others.

Geological Maps [8]

Geological maps are important tools used by geologists to represent the distribution and characteristics of rocks and geological features on the Earth’s surface. These maps are essential for understanding the geological history, tectonic processes, and natural resources of a given area.
– Definition and purpose of geological maps: Geological maps provide a visual representation of the geology of a region, including rock types, faults, folds, and other geological features. The purpose of these maps is to help geologists understand the geological history and structure of a given area, which can be used for a variety of purposes, such as mineral exploration, natural resource management, and hazard assessment.
These symbols can include colors, patterns, and line types, which represent different rock types, faults, folds, and other features.. – Scale and accuracy: Geological maps are created at different scales, depending on the size of the area being studied

Lab 15: Map Skills II – Understanding Direction and Topography – Laboratory Manual for Introduction to Physical Geography – Second Edition [9]

Lab 15: Map Skills II – Understanding Direction and Topography. This lab addresses the fundamentals of how to specify direction and then focuses on the three-dimensional nature of the landscape as expressed in topographic maps – maps which show the three-dimensional landscape by means of contour lines
Nearly every land surface on Earth is composed of slopes (even if, at first glance, they appear to be flat). The direction in which a slope faces is known as its aspect (in other words, it’s the direction down the slope)
This lab is about how to use topographic maps to gain an appreciation of the three-dimensional landscape from a two-dimensional map. We will seek answers to such questions as: In which direction are we looking/going? How high is the land here? How steep is that slope? What profile shape is that hillside? How do we interpret topographic profiles?

5.5 Contour Lines and Intervals [10]

A contour line is a line drawn on a topographic map to indicate ground elevation or depression. A contour interval is the vertical distance or difference in elevation between contour lines
If the numbers associated with specific contour lines are increasing, the elevation of the terrain is also increasing. If the numbers associated with the contour lines are decreasing, there is a decrease in elevation
They then cross the stream and turn back along the opposite bank of the stream forming a “v”. A rounded contour indicates a flatter or wider drainage or spur

Constructing a topographic profile [11]

Other parts of this resource on graphing take you through plotting points and constructing a straight line through data points. If you aren’t sure how to plot points on a graph, please make sure you visit and work through the plotting points tutorial before moving on with this part of the graphing pages
There are other instances in mathematics and graphing where a smooth curve is necessary (e.g., exponential curves, sine waves, etc.); this page is focused on a specific instance when you will construct a topographic profile from a two dimensional map.. When working data with topographic maps, topographic profiles and their construction, we often ask you to connect data points with a smooth curve
This is different from the plotting of a best fit line because it involves extrapolation of information from spatial data. In the case of constructing a topographic map, you must extrapolate the placement of the appropriate elevation contour

Map [12]

A map is a symbolic representation of selected characteristics of a place, usually drawn on a flat surface. A map is a symbolic representation of selected characteristics of a place, usually drawn on a flat surface
They teach about the world by showing sizes and shapes of countries, locations of features, and distances between places. Maps can show distributions of things over Earth, such as settlement patterns
Mapmakers, called cartographers, create maps for many different purposes. Vacationers use road maps to plot routes for their trips

Learning to interpret topographic maps: Understanding layered spatial information [13]

Learning to interpret topographic maps: Understanding layered spatial information. Novices struggle to interpret maps that show information about continuous dimensions (typically latitude and longitude) layered with information that is inherently continuous but segmented categorically
Successful comprehension requires understanding that continuous elevation information is categorically encoded using contour lines, as well as skill in visualizing the three-dimensional shape of the terrain from the contour lines. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether novices would benefit from pointing and tracing gestures that focus attention on contour lines and/or from three-dimensional shape gestures used in conjunction with three-dimensional models
Directing attention to the contour lines may help both in code breaking (seeing how the lines encode elevation) and in shape inference (seeing how the overall configuration of lines encodes shape). In Experiment 2, we varied the language paired with pointing and tracing gestures; key phrases focused either on elevation information or on visualizing shape

maps and globes [14]

A map is a graphical representation, usually in two dimensions, of Earth’s surface, an ocean floor, a night sky, or another large area. Some three-dimensional models and diagrams of complex topics, flows, and changes over time are also called maps (for example, a genetic map)
Because world maps are drawn on a flat surface, they cannot show Earth’s curved surface without significant distortions. A globe is a spherical representation of a planet’s surface or another large area
A globe can show a planet without distortion because of its rounded shape, although Earth—as well as most other planets—is not a perfect sphere but bulges a bit at the Equator. However, people use globes less often than maps because of their bulk and greater cost.

which type of map or diagram would best indicate elevation of the land surface?
14 which type of map or diagram would best indicate elevation of the land surface? Tutorial


  1. https://www.usgs.gov/faqs/what-a-topographic-map#:~:text=The%20distinctive%20characteristic%20of%20a,shape%20of%20the%20Earth’s%20surface.
  2. https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/elevation/#:~:text=Maps%20that%20show%20elevations%20are,where%20and%20how%20people%20live.
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratigraphic_column#:~:text=A%20stratigraphic%20column%20is%20a,units%20in%20a%20particular%20area.
  4. https://www.khanacademy.org/science/ap-biology/natural-selection/phylogeny/a/phylogenetic-trees#:~:text=A%20phylogenetic%20tree%20is%20a,a%20series%20of%20common%20ancestors.
  5. https://www.mapserve.co.uk/blog/contour-maps-a-guide
  6. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/geo/chapter/reading-maps/
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrain_cartography
  8. https://geologyscience.com/geology-branches/structural-geology/geological-maps/
  9. https://opentextbc.ca/geoglabmanualv2/chapter/map-skills-ii/
  10. https://www.nwcg.gov/course/ffm/mapping/55-contour-lines-and-intervals
  11. https://serc.carleton.edu/mathyouneed/slope/topoprofile.html
  12. https://education.nationalgeographic.org/resource/map
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5256432/
  14. https://kids.britannica.com/students/article/maps-and-globes/275680
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