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### What advantages does Keccak/SHA-3 have over BLAKE2? ^{[1]}

Keccak/SHA-3 is new NIST standard for cryptographic hash functions. However, it is much slower than BLAKE2 in software implementations

8$\begingroup$ keccak is substantially faster in hardware, and Blake-2 was not part of the competition, Blake was. It is expected future CPUs will accelerate the keccak core permutation like was done with AES $\endgroup$– Richie FrameJan 4, 2016 at 8:22

And likewise the BLAKE2bp and BLAKE2sp parallel variants. All of these get outrageous speeds when you implement them with a modern SIMD instruction set like AVX2

### Keccak Team ^{[2]}

Guido Bertoni3, Joan Daemen2, Seth Hoffert, Michaël Peeters1, Gilles Van Assche1 and Ronny Van Keer1. 1STMicroelectronics – 2Radboud University – 3Security Pattern

Its structure is the extremely simple sponge construction and internally it uses the innovative Keccak-f cryptographic permutation.. After its selection as the winner of the SHA-3 competition, Keccak has been standardized in 3GPP TS 35.231 for mobile telephony (TUAK), and in NIST standards FIPS 202 and SP 800-185

We derived from Keccak the schemes Ketje, Keyak and KangarooTwelve, also listed in these pages. The scheme Kravatte uses a different construction but the same Keccak-f permutation

### Keccak256 hash function in Solidity ^{[3]}

You can use Keccak256 hashing to authenticate payloads of data. For example, consider an object that generates a unique hash

Later, when someone is presented with the object from some other source, they can compute the hash themselves and then consult the blockchain for authenticity. The blockchain would either respond that there is no known object with that hash (inauthentic), or it would be able to respond with the recorded details

Remember you can create a unique hash from an input but you can not determine the input from the hash. It is a one way street that provides unique authenticity.

### Difference Between SHA-256 and Keccak-256 ^{[4]}

The best way to think of SHA-256 is as a group of cryptographic hash functions. A hash function, also known as a digest or fingerprint, functions as a special signature for a text or data file

This makes it possible to employ hashing for applications such as the validation of files, digital signatures, secure messages, and others.. – In order to use SHA-256, a file or text must first be converted into binary, after which initial hash values and round constants must be set, a message schedule must be created, final values must be compressed, and finally, a string concatenation must be finished in order to combine all the bits.

It can be used to scramble and alter data irreversibly, which ensures that the input cannot be deduced from the SHA-256 algorithm’s output, which is 256 bits long.. – Today’s uses for SHA-256 continue to be useful and include blockchain, cryptocurrencies, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificates, and more.

### NIST Selects Winner of Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-3) Competition ^{[5]}

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) today announced the winner of its five-year competition to select a new cryptographic hash algorithm, one of the fundamental tools of modern information security.. The winning algorithm, Keccak (pronounced “catch-ack”), was created by Guido Bertoni, Joan Daemen and Gilles Van Assche of STMicroelectronics and Michaël Peeters of NXP Semiconductors

Keccak will now become NIST’s SHA-3 hash algorithm.. Hash algorithms are used widely for cryptographic applications that ensure the authenticity of digital documents, such as digital signatures and message authentication codes

A good hash algorithm has a few vital characteristics. Any change in the original message, however small, must cause a change in the digest, and for any given file and digest, it must be infeasible for a forger to create a different file with the same digest.

### Wikipedia ^{[6]}

|Designers||Guido Bertoni, Joan Daemen, Michaël Peeters, and Gilles van Assche.|. |Speed||12.6 cpb on a typical x86-64-based machine for Keccak-f[1600] plus XORing 1024 bits,[1] which roughly corresponds to SHA2-256.|

SHA-3 (Secure Hash Algorithm 3) is the latest member of the Secure Hash Algorithm family of standards, released by NIST on August 5, 2015.[4][5][6] Although part of the same series of standards, SHA-3 is internally different from the MD5-like structure of SHA-1 and SHA-2.. SHA-3 is a subset of the broader cryptographic primitive family Keccak (/ˈkɛtʃæk/ or /ˈkɛtʃɑːk/),[7][8] designed by Guido Bertoni, Joan Daemen, Michaël Peeters, and Gilles Van Assche, building upon RadioGatún

Keccak is based on a novel approach called sponge construction.[13] Sponge construction is based on a wide random function or random permutation, and allows inputting (“absorbing” in sponge terminology) any amount of data, and outputting (“squeezing”) any amount of data, while acting as a pseudorandom function with regard to all previous inputs. NIST does not currently plan to withdraw SHA-2 or remove it from the revised Secure Hash Standard.[needs update?] The purpose of SHA-3 is that it can be directly substituted for SHA-2 in current applications if necessary, and to significantly improve the robustness of NIST’s overall hash algorithm toolkit.[14]

### High Throughput Implementation of the Keccak Hash Function Using the Nios-II Processor ^{[7]}

High Throughput Implementation of the Keccak Hash Function Using the Nios-II Processor †. – We designed the Keccak core solution for all the output lengths of the algorithm (224, 256, 384, and 512).

– We performed extensive analysis and compared the throughput and efficiency of our proposed method with other similar methods.. – For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we provide extensive estimation of performance and power analysis for all the output lengths for the SHA-3 algorithm.

|VHDL||Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language|. |SO-DIMM||Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Module|

### Difference Between SHA-256 and Keccak-256 ^{[8]}

The best way to think of SHA-256 is as a group of cryptographic hash functions. A hash function, also known as a digest or fingerprint, functions as a special signature for a text or data file

This makes it possible to employ hashing for applications such as the validation of files, digital signatures, secure messages, and others.. – In order to use SHA-256, a file or text must first be converted into binary, after which initial hash values and round constants must be set, a message schedule must be created, final values must be compressed, and finally, a string concatenation must be finished in order to combine all the bits.

It can be used to scramble and alter data irreversibly, which ensures that the input cannot be deduced from the SHA-256 algorithm’s output, which is 256 bits long.. – Today’s uses for SHA-256 continue to be useful and include blockchain, cryptocurrencies, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificates, and more.

### Schneier on Security ^{[9]}

Last year, NIST selected Keccak as the winner of the SHA-3 hash function competition. Yes, I would have rather my own Skein had won, but it was a good choice.

Basically, the security levels were reduced and some internal changes to the algorithm were made, all in the name of software performance.. But in light of the Snowden documents that reveal that the NSA has attempted to intentionally weaken cryptographic standards, this is a huge deal

At this point, they simply have to standardize on Keccak as submitted and as selected.. EDITED TO ADD (10/5): It’s worth reading the response from the Keccak team on this issue.

### Cryptography Hash functions ^{[10]}

Hash functions are extremely useful and appear in almost all information security applications.. A hash function is a mathematical function that converts a numerical input value into another compressed numerical value

Values returned by a hash function are called message digest or simply hash values. Hash function coverts data of arbitrary length to a fixed length

In general, the hash is much smaller than the input data, hence hash functions are sometimes called compression functions.. Since a hash is a smaller representation of a larger data, it is also referred to as a digest.

### Secure Hash Algorithms ^{[11]}

In the past, many cryptographic hash algorithms were proposed and used by software developers. Some of them was broken (like MD5 and SHA1), some are still considered secure (like SHA-2, SHA-3 and BLAKE2)

Modern cryptographic hash algorithms (like SHA-3 and BLAKE2) are considered secure enough for most applications.. SHA-2 is a family of strong cryptographic hash functions: SHA-256 (256 bits hash), SHA-384 (384 bits hash), SHA-512 (512 bits hash), etc

SHA-2 is published as official crypto standard in the United States.. SHA-2 is widely used by developers and in cryptography and is considered cryptographically strong enough for modern commercial applications.

### WO2017025252A1 – Method to secure keccak algorithm against side-channel attacks – Google Patents ^{[12]}

WO2017025252A1 – Method to secure keccak algorithm against side-channel attacks – Google PatentsMethod to secure keccak algorithm against side-channel attacks Download PDF. – WO2017025252A1 WO2017025252A1 PCT/EP2016/065837 EP2016065837W WO2017025252A1 WO 2017025252 A1 WO2017025252 A1 WO 2017025252A1 EP 2016065837 W EP2016065837 W EP 2016065837W WO 2017025252 A1 WO2017025252 A1 WO 2017025252A1

– 230000000873 masking Effects 0.000 claims abstract description 19. – 238000004364 calculation method Methods 0.000 claims description 7

– 230000001131 transforming Effects 0.000 claims description 5. – 238000010276 construction Methods 0.000 claims description 4

### High-Speed Hardware Architecture Based on Error Detection for KECCAK ^{[13]}

High-Speed Hardware Architecture Based on Error Detection for KECCAK. The hash function KECCAK integrity algorithm is implemented in cryptographic systems to provide high security for any circuit requiring integrity and protect the transmitted data

Several KECCAK fault detection systems have been proposed to counteract fault attacks. The present research proposes a modified KECCAK architecture and scrambling algorithm to protect against fault injection attacks

Iterative and pipeline designs are both protected by it. To test the resilience of the suggested detection system approach fault attacks, we conduct permanent as well as transient fault attacks, and we evaluate the fault detection capabilities (99.9999% for transient faults and 99.999905% for permanent faults)

### Improved Practical Attacks on Round-Reduced Keccak ^{[14]}

The Keccak hash function is the winner of NIST’s SHA-3 competition, and so far it showed remarkable resistance against practical collision finding attacks: After several years of cryptanalysis and a lot of effort, the largest number of Keccak rounds for which actual collisions were found was only 2. In this paper, we develop improved collision finding techniques which enable us to double this number

When we apply our techniques to 5-round Keccak, we can get in a few days near collisions, where the Hamming distance is 5 in the case of Keccak-224 and 10 in the case of Keccak-256. Our new attack combines differential and algebraic techniques, and uses the fact that each round of Keccak is only a quadratic mapping in order to efficiently find pairs of messages which follow a high probability differential characteristic

The Keccak hash function [5] is the winner of NIST’s SHA-3 competition. The hash function uses the sponge construction [4] to map arbitrarily long inputs into fixed length outputs, and its official versions have an internal state size of b=1600 bits, and an output size n of either 224, 256, 384, or 512 bits

### Keccak Team ^{[15]}

Guido Bertoni3, Joan Daemen2, Seth Hoffert, Michaël Peeters1, Gilles Van Assche1 and Ronny Van Keer1. 1STMicroelectronics – 2Radboud University – 3Security Pattern

Van Assche, Thinking Outside the Superbox, CRYPTO, 2021. This article can be seen as a follow-up of the paper On alignment in Keccak

The paper presents experiments on four S-box based primitives that otherwise represent different design approaches. We precisely define what it means for a primitive to be aligned and showed that Rijndael, Saturnin, and Spongent are aligned, whereas Xoodoo is unaligned

### Sources

- https://crypto.stackexchange.com/questions/31674/what-advantages-does-keccak-sha-3-have-over-blake2
- https://keccak.team/keccak.html#:~:text=Keccak%20is%20a%20versatile%20cryptographic,and%20pseudo%2Drandom%20number%20generation.
- https://cryptomarketpool.com/keccak256/#:~:text=Keccak256%20is%20a%20cryptographic%20function,32%20byte%20hash%20using%20Keccak256.
- https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/difference-between-sha-256-and-keccak-256/#:~:text=Keccak256%2C%20a%20cryptographic%20function%2C%20is,stronger%20compared%20to%20SHA%2D256.
- https://www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2012/10/nist-selects-winner-secure-hash-algorithm-sha-3-competition
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SHA-3
- https://www.mdpi.com/2227-7080/8/1/15
- https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/difference-between-sha-256-and-keccak-256/
- https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2013/10/will_keccak_sha-3.html
- https://www.tutorialspoint.com/cryptography/cryptography_hash_functions.htm
- https://cryptobook.nakov.com/cryptographic-hash-functions/secure-hash-algorithms
- https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2017025252A1/en
- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10302085/
- https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00145-012-9142-5
- https://keccak.team/papers.html