15 which of the following is an advantage of using multiple steps in electron transport? Tutorial

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Electron Transport Chain [1]

• Transfer of electrons between carriers in the electron transport chain in the membrane of the cristae is. The final stage of aerobic respiration is the electron transport chain, which is located on the inner mitochondrial membrane
The electron transport chain releases the energy stored within the reduced hydrogen carriers in order to synthesise ATP. – This is called oxidative phosphorylation, as the energy to synthesise ATP is derived from the oxidation of hydrogen carriers
– Proton pumps create an electrochemical gradient (proton motive force). – ATP synthase uses the subsequent diffusion of protons (chemiosmosis) to synthesise ATP

Function and structure of complex II of the respiratory chain [2]

Function and structure of complex II of the respiratory chain. Function and structure of complex II of the respiratory chain
A recent X-ray structural solution of members of the complex II family of proteins has provided important insights into their function. One feature of the complex II structures is a linear electron transport chain that extends from the flavin and iron-sulfur redox cofactors in the membrane extrinsic domain to the quinone and b heme cofactors in the membrane domain
Prokaryotic assembly factors for the attachment of flavin to complex II.Biochim Biophys Acta. Crystal structure of mitochondrial respiratory membrane protein complex II.Cell

Electron Transport Chain: Components, Steps, and Importance [3]

The electron transport chain (ETC) is a group of protein complexes that function in the last stage of cellular respiration.. In eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is found in the inner mitochondrial membrane where each component acts in sequence to catalyze redox reactions, transfer electrons from their donor to acceptor molecules, and simultaneously transport protons (H+) across the inner mitochondrial membrane to the intermembrane space.
Moreover, the transfer of protons across the membrane also establishes the proton gradients which provide energy for oxidative phosphorylation that synthesizes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for cellular use.. The Role of Electron Transport Chain in Cellular Respiration
The complete cellular process consists of four pathways: glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.. When a glucose molecule enters glycolysis, it is transformed into two pyruvate molecules

8.7: Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation [4]

8.7: Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation. The entire textbook is available for free from the authors at http://biochem.science.oregonstate.edu/content/biochemistry-free-and-easy
Even plants, which generate ATP by photophosphorylation in chloroplasts, contain mitochondria for the synthesis of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation.. Oxidative phosphorylation is linked to a process known as electron transport (Figure 5.14)
As we shall see, movement of electrons through complexes of the electron transport system essentially “charges” a battery that is used to make ATP in oxidative phosphorylation. In this way, the oxidation of sugars and fatty acids is coupled to the synthesis of ATP, effectively extracting energy from food.

7. Electron Transport Chain and ATP Formation • Functions of Cells and Human Body [5]

Oxidation is defined in chemistry as the removal of electrons or decreasing of the oxidation number of an element. Since these removed electrons must end up on some other element oxidation of one compound is always accompanied by the reduction of another
As we shall see shortly, oxygen is in fact not required for oxidation, as defined above, to take place.. Oxygen is an excellent oxidising agent; it loves receiving electrons
Oxygen has one of the highest electronegativities of all elements; in fact it is second only to fluorine. This means that the transfer of electrons onto oxygen including the formation of bonds with oxygen is thermodynamically favourable, i.e

Oxidative Phosphorylation: Definition & Process I StudySmarter [6]

Oxygen is a critical molecule for a process called oxidative phosphorylation. This two-step process uses electron transport chains and chemiosmosis to generate energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Explore our app and discover over 50 million learning materials for free.. Lerne mit deinen Freunden und bleibe auf dem richtigen Kurs mit deinen persönlichen LernstatistikenJetzt kostenlos anmelden
Oxygen is a critical molecule for a process called oxidative phosphorylation. This two-step process uses electron transport chains and chemiosmosis to generate energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation [7]

The drug, DNP, destroys the H+ gradient that forms in the electron transport chain. If the proton gradient of the electron transport chain were to be destroyed, the cell would need to perform cellular respiration without an electron transport chain
Example Question #1 : Electron Transport Chain And Oxidative Phosphorylation. Given a healthy individual with a normal metabolic rate, which of the following compounds is the most energy rich?
During oxidative phosphorylation (the electron transport chain), each 1 ATP is produced for each GTP, 2 ATP are produced for each FADH2, and 3 ATP are produced for each NADH.. Example Question #2 : Electron Transport Chain And Oxidative Phosphorylation

Electron Transport Chain, Ubiquinone and Cytochrome C [8]

The final stage of cellular respiration is oxidative phosphorylation that consists of two steps: the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis. The electron transport chain is a set of proteins found in the inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotic cells
The ETC is comprised of protein complex I, II, III, and IV. NADH and FADH2 are reduced electron carriers that donate electrons to the ETC complexes
Upon donation of electrons, NADH and FADH2 are converted back to their oxidized forms NAD+ and FAD, respectively.. These ETC complexes pass electrons to one another through multiple redox reactions in an energetically downhill sequence

Electron Transport Chain [9]

The electron transport chain is a protein cluster that transfers electrons through a membrane within mitochondria to form a proton gradient that drives the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The cell uses ATP as an energy source for metabolic processes and cellular functions.
The ETC is responsible for transporting electrons from NADH and FADH2 to protein complexes and mobile electron carriers. In the ETC, Coenzyme Q (CoQ) and Cyt c are mobile electron carriers, and O2 is the final electron recipient.
These cytochromes and coenzymes act as transporter atoms, moving particles around.. They accept high-energy electrons and transfer them to the next atom in the system.

Cell Energy, Cell Functions [10]

This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Cells manage a wide range of functions in their tiny package — growing, moving, housekeeping, and so on — and most of those functions require energy
Cellular nutrients come in many forms, including sugars and fats. In order to provide a cell with energy, these molecules have to pass across the cell membrane, which functions as a barrier — but not an impassable one
In much the same way that doors and windows allow necessities to enter the house, various proteins that span the cell membrane permit specific molecules into the cell, although they may require some energy input to accomplish this task (Figure 2).. Complex organic food molecules such as sugars, fats, and proteins are rich sources of energy for cells because much of the energy used to form these molecules is literally stored within the chemical bonds that hold them together

oxidative phosphorylation [11]

Complex II is another group of proteins that serves as a second entry point into the electron transport chain, which is involved in the additional production of ATP to power cellular processes. The electron transport chain releases minute amounts of energy with each electron transfer, and the transport is coupled to the pumping of protons across the mitochondrial membrane
It shows electrons provided by succinate traveling first to FAD and then along a series of iron sulfur clusters to a ubiquinone acceptor.. Complex II, like Complex I, is an entry point into the electron transport chain.
The X-ray crystal structure of Complex II is shown below. It is depicted in cartoon form to highlight the structure, with pink helices, yellow sheets and white loops

Green Chemistry [12]

Greening Across the Chemistry Curriculum English | Versión en Español | Versão em Português (Brasil). Suggested Use: A biochemistry course during a discussion of enzyme mechanisms and kinetics, or oxidative phosphorylation.
offers a “Green” Alternative to Some of the More Conventionally Used Insecticides. Joan Wasilewski, Chemistry Department, University of Scranton
Those discussed below include the organophosphates and carbamates, which are widely used chemicals whose primary effect is the inhibition of an enzyme involved in regulation of nerve transmission; and rotenone, a chemical whose effect involves inhibition of an enzyme found in the electron transport chain. Although these classes of chemicals are effective against insects, they may exhibit toxic effects on other organisms.

Electron transport chain [13]

An electron transport chain (ETC[1]) is a series of protein complexes and other molecules that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox reactions (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane. The electrons that transferred from NADH and FADH2 to the ETC involves four multi-subunit large enzymes complexes and two mobile electron carriers
The flow of electrons through the electron transport chain is an exergonic process. The energy from the redox reactions creates an electrochemical proton gradient that drives the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
In anaerobic respiration, other electron acceptors are used, such as sulfate.. In an electron transport chain, the redox reactions are driven by the difference in the Gibbs free energy of reactants and products

Electron carriers and energy conservation in mitochondrial respiration [14]

The chemical system for the transformation of energy in eukaryotic mitochondria has engaged researchers for almost a century. This summary of four lectures on the electron transport system in mitochondria is an introduction to the mammalian electron transport chain for those unfamiliar with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation
The electron transport chain converts the energy that is released as electrons are passed to carriers of progressively higher redox potential into a proton gradient across the membrane that drives adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. The electron carriers include flavins, iron–sulfur centers, heme groups, and copper to divide the redox change from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) at −320 mV to oxygen at +800 mV into steps that allow conversion and conservation of the energy released in three major complexes (Complexes I, III, and IV) by moving protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane
Mitochondria and their proteins play roles not only in the production of ATP but also in cell survival, for which energy supply is the key.. The chemiosmotic mechanism for ATP synthesis is key to aerobic energy conversion in all cells, supplying the majority of the energy required for survival, repair, growth, and reproduction of the organism

MCQ on Electron Transport System [15]

Located within the inner mitochondrial membrane, the ETS (Electron Transport System) or electron transport chain performs its functions. Several electron transporters are linked together in a series, which makes it easier for electrons to travel from one carrier to another during redox processes
The establishment of a proton gradient across the membrane results, which drives the production of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation during the process of cellular respiration, as previously stated.. – Which of the following is the correct sequence of electron acceptors in ETS for production of ATP?
– Which of the following terminal cytochromes is responsible for the transfer of electrons from oxygen to other molecules?. A subgroup of heme A cytochromes with an alpha-band absorption wavelength of 605 nm that belong to the heme A superfamily

which of the following is an advantage of using multiple steps in electron transport?
15 which of the following is an advantage of using multiple steps in electron transport? Tutorial


  1. http://ib.bioninja.com.au/higher-level/topic-8-metabolism-cell/untitled/electron-transport-chain.html
  2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14527321/#:~:text=Complex%20II%20is%20the%20only,important%20insights%20into%20their%20function.
  3. https://conductscience.com/electron-transport-chain/
  4. https://bio.libretexts.org/Courses/Wheaton_College_Massachusetts/Principles_of_Biochemistry/08%3A_Carbohydrate_structure_and_metabolism/8.07%3A_Electron_Transport_and_Oxidative_Phosphorylation
  5. http://fblt.cz/en/skripta/ii-premena-latek-a-energie-v-bunce/7-dychaci-retezec-a-tvorba-atp/
  6. https://www.studysmarter.us/explanations/biology/energy-transfers/oxidative-phosphorylation/
  7. https://www.varsitytutors.com/mcat_biology-help/electron-transport-chain-and-oxidative-phosphorylation
  8. https://www.jove.com/science-education/10742/electron-transport-chains
  9. https://www.vedantu.com/biology/electron-transport-chain
  10. https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/cell-energy-and-cell-functions-14024533/
  11. https://employees.csbsju.edu/cschaller/Reactivity/oxphos/OPcomplexII.htm
  12. https://www.scranton.edu/faculty/cannm/green-chemistry/english/biochemistrymodule.shtml
  13. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_transport_chain
  14. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40828-019-0085-4
  15. https://unacademy.com/content/neet-ug/study-material/biology/mcq-on-electron-transport-system/
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