16 france lost which of its north african colonies to a violent revolution? With Video

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Algerian War [1]

|Part of the Cold War and the decolonisation of Africa|. |300,000 identified 40,000 civilian support||3,000 (OAS)|
The Algerian War (also known as the Algerian Revolution or the Algerian War of Independence)[nb 1] was a major armed conflict between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front (French: Front de Libération Nationale – FLN) from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria winning its independence from France.[32] An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare and war crimes. The conflict also became a civil war between the different communities and within the communities.[33] The war took place mainly on the territory of Algeria, with repercussions in metropolitan France.
The brutality of the methods employed by the French forces failed to win hearts and minds in Algeria, alienated support in metropolitan France, and discredited French prestige abroad.[34][35] As the war dragged on, the French public slowly turned against it[36] and many of France’s key allies, including the United States, switched from supporting France to abstaining in the UN debate on Algeria.[37] After major demonstrations in Algiers and several other cities in favor of independence (1960)[38][39] and a United Nations resolution recognizing the right to independence,[40] Charles de Gaulle, the first president of the Fifth Republic, decided to open a series of negotiations with the FLN. These concluded with the signing of the Évian Accords in March 1962

World Civilizations I (HIS101) – Biel [2]

French West Africa was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte d’Ivoire, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin), and Niger.. List some of the modern-day countries that were once part of France’s West African territories
– During this time the Voulet–Chanoine Mission, a military expedition, was sent from Senegal in 1898 to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa.. – Until the unification of these colonies into French West Africa, these conquered areas were usually governed by French Army officers and dubbed “Military Territories.”
However, the Cercle system at the lowest level was a constant.. – A Cercle was the smallest unit of French political administration in French Colonial Africa as headed by a European officer

The Revolution of 1848 in Senegal: Emancipation and Representation [3]

This post is a part of the “Race and Revolution” Series.. The French Revolution of 1848 sparked the abolition of slavery in France’s colonies, transforming the way race, freedom, and citizenship were defined in different parts of the empire.[1] Perhaps unexpectedly, the 1848 Revolution had significant reverberations in France’s West African colony of Senegal
The colony was small, consisting of the urban coastal center of Saint-Louis at the mouth of the Senegal River, Gorée Island to the south, and other minor outposts. The overseas slave trade had been abolished several decades earlier in 1818 (though effective enforcement took some time longer), eventually depriving the colony of one of its important economic foundations and causing a turn to an expanded trade in gum arabic harvested from trees in the region.[2] The gum trade went into crisis in the late 1830s, however, and while peanuts were gaining importance, they had not yet become the clearly dominant cash crop of the colony.[3] Beginning in the 1830s, a series of colonial governors – none of whom stayed in their positions long – pleaded for additional support and argued that the metropolitan government was neglecting Senegal
The events of 1848, however, led to major shifts in colonial Senegal. Those living within the borders of the colony found themselves facing a new future

French colonial empire [4]

|Religion||Catholicism, Islam, Judaism,[3] Louisiana Voodoo,[4] Haitian Vodou,[5] Buddhism,[6] Hinduism[7]|. |Currency||French franc and various other currencies|
A distinction is generally made between the “First French colonial empire,” that existed until 1814, by which time most of it had been lost or sold, and the “Second French colonial empire,” which began with the conquest of Algiers in 1830. At its apex between the two world wars, the second French colonial empire was the second-largest colonial empire in the world behind the British Empire.[8]
The North American possessions were lost to Britain and Spain, but Spain later returned Louisiana (New France) to France in 1800. The territory was then sold to the United States in 1803

Algeria – Colonialism, Resistance, Revolution [5]

– Anti-government protests and the presidency of Abdelmadjid Tebboune. The manner in which French rule was established in Algeria during the years 1830–47 laid the groundwork for a pattern of rule that French Algeria would maintain until independence
There was a relative absence of well-established native mediators between the French rulers and the mass population, and an ever-growing French settler population (the colons, also known as pieds noirs) demanded the privileges of a ruling minority in the name of French democracy. When Algeria eventually became a part of France juridically, that only added to the power of the colons, who sent delegates to the French parliament
Settler domination of Algeria was not secured, however, until the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and the rise of the Third Republic in France. Until then Algeria remained largely under military administration, and the governor-general of Algeria was almost invariably a military officer until the 1880s

Making ghosts perceptible: Literature and post-colonial memory in Algeria [6]

Making ghosts perceptible: Literature and post-colonial memory in Algeria. In 1830, France forcibly and violently colonized Algeria, keeping it as a territory until 1962, when the North African nation gained its independence following one of the longest and most intense decolonizing wars of the 20th century
In her recent book “Decolonizing Memory: Algeria and the Politics of Testimony,” Yale professor Jill Jarvis examines the crucial role played by Algerian writers in this process of “decolonization.” She explores how a group of writers forged a new “historical memory” and nurtured political resistance. By analyzing their works alongside political, judicial, and social texts from Algeria’s national liberation war, as well as its later civil war, Jarvis makes the case for literature’s capacity to rewrite history and dispute state authority to arbitrate justice.
In your book, you explore the process of “decolonizing memory” in Algeria. Jill Jarvis: When I teach a class about decolonizing memory, I show photographs of dust that, in February 2021 and 2022, fell all over Europe

How the French Debacle in Algeria Shaped the Rise of Marine Le Pen—and What America Can Learn From It [7]

How the French Debacle in Algeria Shaped the Rise of Marine Le Pen—and What America Can Learn From It. This article was originally published here on Salon.com on Sunday, April 30, 2017.
Emmanuel Macron won just over 24 percent of the vote, and 21.3 percent of voters cast their ballots for Marine Le Pen. There will be a runoff on May 7 — as in every previous French presidential election under their current system, neither candidate won the absolute majority necessary for an outright victory — in which Macron is the heavy favorite.
If he wins, Macron will reinforce others like Germany’s Angela Merkel as bulwarks against the undemocratic, nationalist far right that has made gains across Europe. The very fact that a neofascist like Le Pen attracted so many voters in France’s elections is disconcerting but not terribly shocking

Sciences Po Mass Violence and Resistance – Research Network [8]

Colonial violence and resistance in Chad (1900-1960). Post-colonial Chad is seen as a textbook case of factional conflicts and cycles of violence
Another result of this history has been that armed violence has become a practical occupation for a section of the male population (Debos, 2016, 2013, 2011). While Chad’s period of colonization was relatively short – about 60 years, it was disruptive: the French ruled by force of arms, and the colonial order fuelled local tensions
Being sent to this poor country with its harsh climate was often tantamount to demotion or punishment. Colonial domination remained fragmented and incomplete in some areas of northern Chad

The many faces of colonial rule in French North Africa [9]

THE MANY FACES OF COLONIAL RULE IN FRENCH NORTH AFRICA. We like to think that each generation rewrites its history because of advances achieved both in data-collection and interpretative sophistication
We applaud when the spotlight is thrown upon hitherto ignored peoples, institutions and causal interpretation, but we are likely to overlook that certain historical actors and scenery have, as a result, faded into a nebulous background.. Man’s inclination to overlook all but the currently pressing (or popular or “relevant”) issues will ever stand in the way of historical understanding
Earlier generations showed an abysmal lack of interest in the indigenous colonized societies. From Morocco to the Philippines there were only undif- ferentiated natives

The lost promise of childhood [10]

The state-sanctioned violence committed against children such as Nahel M forces us to revisit the very question of childhood, its privileges, and its roots in the French imperialization of Africa.. When French director Mathieu Kassovitz created his magnum opus, La Haine (Hatred), in 1995, he did so “because kids die.” The film, heralded as a watershed work for cinema of the French banlieues (suburbs), reflects the Parisian periphery, its quotidian, and its ills
In earlier parts of the film, Abdel is still in intensive care; the men later learn of his death when they are spending the night in a shopping mall, during which news of his death glares from the mall’s disturbingly massive televisions. The film crescendos from this point, and the young trio falls into various altercations with skinheads and police until the film’s finale
In the final shots, Hubert and the policeman point their guns at each other. Kassovitz’ film was inspired by the death of Makomé M’Bowolé, a boy of Congolese descent who was shot at point-blank range by French police on April 6, 1993

The First World War and its consequences in Africa [11]

The First World War represented a turning-point in African history, not as dramatic as the Second World War, but nevertheless important in many areas. One of its most important legacies was the reordering of the map of Africa roughly as it is today.
Campaigns were fought on African soil which ‒ though they only marginally affected the overall course of war ‒ had significant implications for Africa. Mor e than a million African soldiers were involved in these campaigns or campaigns in Europe
Over 150000 soldiers and carriers lost their lives during the war. By the time the war ended, every country in Africa, with the exception of the small Spanish territories ‒ which remained neutral ‒ had been formally committed to one side or the other

Women in the French Revolution: A Resource Guide [12]

The three major revolutions in France occurred in the years 1789, 1830 and 1848. There is the French Revolution of 1789, which brought down the Monarchy and the ancien régime — and resulted in the beheading of King Louis XVI and his famous wife, Marie Antoinette
It was a messy and bloody time with estimates of deaths reaching 20,000.. After this period the Directory was established wherein Napoléon Bonaparte proved his worth and loyalty
His rule was marked by military ambitions and Imperial expansion, but he also created a Civil Code (the Napoleonic Code) that among other things reformed education and allowed for meritocratic promotion in the officer corps. In fairly short order he crowned himself Emperor (taking the crown from the Pope to put it on his own head) in Notre Dame Cathedral in 1804

The United Nations, Decolonization and Violence against Civilians in the French and British Empires (Chapter 14) [13]

– Introduction: The Civilianization of War and the Changing Civil–Military Divide, 1914–2014. – Part I Who Fights? Combatants, Mobilization and the Changing Nature of War
– Part III Civilian Protection and International Norms and Organizations: When and How Much?. – 12 Turn Everyone into a Civilian: René Cassin and the UNESCO Project, 1919–1945
– 14 The United Nations, Decolonization and Violence against Civilians in the French and British Empires. – 15 The ‘Protection of Civilians’: Peacekeeping’s New Raison d’Être?

France: Police Violence as Part of Colonial History [14]

The power of the police was originally developed in the Western world as a vast system for the capture of bodies deemed abnormal: Jews, “witches”, homosexuals, prostitutes, “mad” men and women, the destitute, later to control unruly behaviour of the populace and put down social rebel-lions linked with the growth of the bourgeois metropolis. However, as historian Emmanuel Blanchard has written, the police as an institution may also be regarded as “colonial by nature”
Throughout the colonial era, the military/police system for the repression of rebellion and the everyday disciplining of the colonised bodies constitutes a basic repertory.. The wars later waged by the “Western” States against the populations of the global South have regularly and deeply influenced the transformations of police power
This regime of power has also provided another important toolbox in the history of the police.. Via the circulation of high state officials through imperial situations at home and abroad, a verita-ble transmission of colonial know was implemented

Conclusion: The French Revolution on Silent Feet [15]

Conclusion: The French Revolution on Silent FeetGet access. The conclusion presents the results of the study in a broader perspective and sets them in relation to some major current trends in the historiography of the French Revolution
Moreover, the political interests of France and the specific conditions in the French expatriate communities in the Ottoman Empire led to a policy of tolerance and indulgence of the French authorities in the Levant even during the heyday of revolutionary fervour.. – Sign in with a library card Sign in with username / password Recommend to your librarian
Our books are available by subscription or purchase to libraries and institutions.Purchasing information. Access to content on Oxford Academic is often provided through institutional subscriptions and purchases

French Colonial Rule [16]

The French presence in Africa dates to the 17th century, but the main period of colonial expansion came in the 19th century with the invasion of Ottoman Algiers in 1830, conquests in West and Equatorial Africa during the so-called scramble for Africa and the establishment of protectorates in Tunisia and Morocco in the decades before the First World War. To these were added parts of German Togo and Cameroon, assigned to France as League of Nations mandates after the war
1905), the western Maghreb, the Indian Ocean islands of Madagascar, Réunion, and the Comoros, and Djibouti in the Horn of Africa. Within this African empire, territories in sub-Saharan Africa were treated primarily as colonies of exploitation, while a settler colonial model guided colonization efforts in the Maghreb, although only Algeria drew many European immigrants
At the same time, French domination was never as complete as the solid blue swathes on maps of “Greater France” would suggest. As in all empires, colonized people throughout French Africa developed strategies to resist or evade French authority, subvert or co-opt the so-called civilizing mission, and cope with the upheavals of occupation

france lost which of its north african colonies to a violent revolution?
16 france lost which of its north african colonies to a violent revolution? With Video


  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algerian_War#:~:text=The%20Algerian%20War%20(also%20known,winning%20its%20independence%20from%20France.
  2. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-fmcc-boundless-worldhistory/chapter/france-in-africa/#:~:text=French%20West%20Africa%20(French%3A%20Afrique,(now%20Benin)%20and%20Niger.
  3. https://ageofrevolutions.com/2018/04/30/the-revolution-of-1848-in-senegal-emancipation-and-representation/#:~:text=The%20French%20Revolution%20of%201848,West%20African%20colony%20of%20Senegal.
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_colonial_empire
  5. https://www.britannica.com/place/Algeria/Colonial-rule
  6. https://news.yale.edu/2023/05/30/making-ghosts-perceptible-literature-and-post-colonial-memory-algeria
  7. https://www.cfr.org/blog/how-french-debacle-algeria-shaped-rise-marine-le-pen-and-what-america-can-learn-it
  8. https://www.sciencespo.fr/mass-violence-war-massacre-resistance/en/document/colonial-violence-and-resistance-chad-1900-1960.html
  9. https://www.persee.fr/doc/remmm_0035-1474_1973_num_13_1_1201
  10. https://africasacountry.com/2023/07/the-lost-promise-of-childhood
  11. https://en.unesco.org/courier/news-views-online/first-world-war-and-its-consequences-africa
  12. https://guides.loc.gov/women-in-the-french-revolution/revolutions-rebellions/1789-1830-1848
  13. https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/civilianization-of-war/united-nations-decolonization-and-violence-against-civilians-in-the-french-and-british-empires/F0F1F9F73053F8EE9599D63967CE4B7B
  14. https://orientxxi.info/magazine/france-police-violence-as-part-of-colonial-history,5726
  15. https://academic.oup.com/book/9093/chapter/155667040
  16. https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/abstract/document/obo-9780199846733/obo-9780199846733-0029.xml
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