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The Development of Plate Tectonics
The Development of Plate Tectonics
The Development of Plate Tectonics
What is plate tectonics? 
Plate tectonics explains the movement of Earth’s surface.. From the deepest ocean trench to the tallest mountain, plate tectonics explains the features and movement of Earth’s surface in the present and the past.
Wegener didn’t have an explanation for how continents could move around the planet, but researchers do now: Plate tectonics.. Plate tectonics is the theory that Earth’s outer shell is divided into large slabs of solid rock, called “plates,” that glide over Earth’s mantle, the rocky inner layer above Earth’s core
It is 100 km (60 miles) thick, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica. Below the lithosphere is the asthenosphere — a viscous layer kept malleable by heat deep within the Earth
Continental Drift versus Plate Tectonics 
A scientific idea that was initially ridiculed paved the way for the theory of plate tectonics, which explains how Earth’s continents move.. Earth Science, Geology, Geography, Physical Geography
The realization that Earth’s land masses move was first proposed by Alfred Wegener, which he called continental drift. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit
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Plate Tectonics vs. Continental Drift and See Floor Spreading 
August 21st CA (Pulses, 3D Printing) | Daily CA Updates on Telegram. – It was from the continental drift theory, convection current theory and the theory of seafloor spreading, the theory of Plate Tectonics was formulated.
– According to the theory of plate tectonics, the earth’s lithosphere is broken into distinct plates which are floating on a ductile layer called asthenosphere (upper part of the mantle).. – Plates move horizontally over the asthenosphere as rigid units.
– The oceanic plates contain mainly the Simatic crust and are relatively thinner, while the continental plates contain Sialic material and are relatively thicker.. – Lithospheric plates (tectonic plates) vary from minor plates to major plates, continental plates (Arabian plate) to oceanic plates (Pacific plate), sometimes a combination of both continental and oceanic plates (Indo-Australian plate).
Plate tectonics 
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin: tectonicus, from the Ancient Greek: τεκτονικός, lit. ‘pertaining to building’) is the scientific theory that Earth’s lithosphere comprises a number of large tectonic plates which have been slowly moving since about 3.4 billion years ago. The model builds on the concept of continental drift, an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century
Earth’s lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of the planet (the crust and upper mantle), is broken into seven or eight major plates (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates or “platelets”. Where the plates meet, their relative motion determines the type of plate boundary: convergent, divergent, or transform
The relative movement of the plates typically ranges from zero to 10 cm annually.. Tectonic plates are composed of the oceanic lithosphere and the thicker continental lithosphere, each topped by its own kind of crust
Plate tectonics – Development, Theory, Earth 
– Alfred Wegener and the concept of continental drift. The outlines of the continents flanking the Atlantic Ocean are so similar that their correspondence was apparent as soon as accurate maps became available
Toward the end of the 18th century, Alexander von Humboldt, a German naturalist, suggested that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean had once been joined.. In 1858 French geographer Antonio Snider-Pellegrini proposed that identical fossil plants in North American and European coal deposits could be explained if the two continents had formerly been connected
In the late 19th century the Austrian geologist Eduard Suess proposed that large ancient continents had been composed of several of the present-day smaller ones. According to this hypothesis, portions of a single enormous southern continent—designated Gondwana (or Gondwanaland)—foundered to create the Atlantic and Indian oceans
Plate Tectonics 
The theory of plate tectonics revolutionized the earth sciences by explaining how the movement of geologic plates causes mountain building, volcanoes, and earthquakes.. Earth Science, Geology, Oceanography, Geography, Physical Geography
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History of plate tectonics 
Paleontologists had also found that there were fossils of similar species found on continents that are now separated by great geographic distance. Paleoclimate studies, which concerns examining the climate in Earth’s past, revealed that glaciers covered large areas of the world which also are now separated by great geographic distances
Wegener’s ideas were very controversial because he didn’t have an explanation for why the continents moved, just that there was observational evidence that they had. At the time, many geologists believed that the features of the Earth were the result of the Earth going through cycles of heating and cooling, which causes expansion and contraction of the land masses
The mobilists were in the opposite camp and supported Wegener’s ideas, since many of them had seen evidence for continental motion, especially in the Alps.. Although Wegener’s “continental drift” theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics
5.8: Plate Tectonics 
Plate tectonics is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of Earth’s lithosphere. This theoretical model builds on the concept of continental drift which was developed during the first few decades of the 20th century
The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century.. The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (on Earth, the crust and upper mantle), is broken up into tectonic plates
Where plates meet, their relative motion determines the type of boundary; convergent, divergent, or transform. Earthquakes,volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation occur along these plate boundaries
Historical Development Of The Plate Tectonic Paradigm 
Historical Development Of The Plate Tectonic Paradigm. The plate tectonic paradigm was developed from a number of different models, ideas and observations that were advanced over the prior century by a number of scientists on different continents
Wegener was an early proponent of continental drift. He looked for a driving mechanism to move continents through the mantle, and invoked an imaginary force (which he called Pohl uicht) that he proposed caused the plates to drift toward the equator because of the rotation of the Earth
in 1929 British geologist Arthur Holmes proposed that the Earth produces heat by radioactive decay and that there are not enough volcanoes to remove all this heat. He proposed that a combination of volcanic heat loss and mantle convection can disperse the heat, and that the mantle convection drives continental drift
[Solved] Plate Tectonics as theory was first presented by : 
Plate Tectonics as theory was first presented by W.J. – The term plate was first introduces by Canadian geophysicist Tuzo Wilson in 1965
Morgan elaborated various aspects related to plate tectonics in 1968. Hary Hess postulated the concept of plate tectonic in 1960
– The model builds on the concept of continental drift, an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century.. – Plate-tectonics came to be generally accepted by geoscientists after seafloor spreading was validated in the mid to late 1960s.
Plate Tectonics Theory Was Widely Accepted By Scientists In What Decade? 
Plate Tectonics Theory Was Widely Accepted By Scientists In What Decade??. His book The Origin of Continents and Oceans published in 1915 is widely accepted as the beginning of modern plate tectonics even if the theory was only widely accepted in a refined version in the 1960s
By 1966 most scientists in geology accepted the theory of plate tectonics. The root of this was Alfred Wegener’s 1912 publication of his theory of continental drift which was a controversy in the field through the 1950s.
The theory of plate tectonics which was derived from Wegener’s proposal of continental drift in the 1920s was not generally accepted until the 1960s.. Which of the following is used as evidence by Wegener to develop the theory of continental drift?
Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics 
Alfred Wegener, in the first three decades of this century, and DuToit in the 1920s and 1930s gathered evidence that the continents had moved. They based their idea of continental drift on several lines of evidence: fit of the continents, paleoclimate indicators, truncated geologic features, and fossils.
Some had even wildly proposed that the continents had been split apart.. Among other things, he studied paleoclimate indicators in sedimentary strata
In rocks of the same age in equatorial Africa he knew there were glacial tillites. These indicated to Wegener that the continents must have moved (Europe from near the equator, Africa from the polar region into the equatorial region).
4.1 Alfred Wegener and the Theory of Plate Tectonics – Introduction to Oceanography 
4.1 Alfred Wegener and the Theory of Plate Tectonics. If you look at a map of Earth, you may notice that some of the continents seem to fit together
This apparent fit is due to the fact the continents were once connected, and have since moved apart in what has been called . However, we now know that it is not just the continents that move, so a more correct term is
Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) earned a PhD in astronomy at the University of Berlin in 1904, but he had always been interested in geophysics and meteorology and spent most of his academic career working in meteorology. In 1911 he happened on a scientific publication that included a description of the existence of matching -aged terrestrial fossils in various parts of South America, Africa, India, Antarctica, and Australia (Figure 4.1.2)
Developing the theory [This Dynamic Earth, USGS] 
Continental drift was hotly debated off and on for decades following Wegener’s. death before it was largely dismissed as being eccentric, preposterous,
emerged to revive the debate about Wegener’s provocative ideas and their. In particular, four major scientific developments spurred
ruggedness and youth of the ocean floor; (2) confirmation of repeated reversals. of the Earth magnetic field in the geologic past; (3) emergence of the seafloor-spreading
Plate tectonics theory was widely accepted by scientists in what decade 
The theory of continental drift was first proposed in the early 20th century. It wasn’t until geologists had a much better understanding of processes like seafloor spreading from research conducted in the 1960s that the theory of plate tectonics become widely accepted among geologists.
It wasn’t until geologists had a much better understanding of processes like seafloor spreading from research conducted in the 1960s that the theory of plate tectonics become widely accepted among geologists.
plate tectonics: history of an idea. 
Close examination of a globe often results in the observation that most of the continents seem to fit together like a puzzle: the west African coastline seems to snuggle nicely into the east coast of South America and the Caribbean sea; and a similar fit appears across the Pacific. The fit is even more striking when the submerged continental shelves are compared rather than the coastlines
He believed that Pangaea was intact until the late Carboniferous period, about 300 million years ago, when it began to break up and drift apart. However, Wegener’s hypothesis lacked a geological mechanism to explain how the continents could drift across the earths surface as he proposed.
This proposed land bridge was an attempt to explain the well known paleontological observation that the same fossilized plants and animals from the same time period were found in South America and Africa. The same was true for fossils found in Europe and North America, and Madagascar and India