17 the folds in the mucosa of the stomach which allows it to expand as it fills with food are the Guides

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Cross Section of the Stomach Diagram & Function [1]

Inside, mechanical breakdown begins immediately as it is chewed and mixed with saliva. This breakdown continues as the food travels down the esophagus to the stomach
The upper part of the stomach, the fundus, acts as the initial contact for food when it meets the stomach lining. There, pepsin — a protein-digesting enzyme — is activated and begins working to digest the food along with hydrochloric acid, a powerful digestive acid that kills bacteria and creates a pH level that allows pepsin and other enzymes to work.
The lower, narrower portion of the stomach, the pylorus, uses muscular action (termed peristalsis) to mix enzymes, food, and liquid before it empties these into the duodenum, or the first part of the small intestine. The pylorus facilitates the rate at which the food empties into the small intestine.

Gastric folds [2]

The gastric folds (or gastric rugae) are coiled sections of tissue that exist in the mucosal and submucosal layers of the stomach.[1] They provide elasticity by allowing the stomach to expand when a bolus enters it. These folds stretch outward through the action of mechanoreceptors, which respond to the increase in pressure.[2] This allows the stomach to expand, therefore increasing the volume of the stomach without increasing pressure.[2] They also provide the stomach with an increased surface area for nutrient absorption during digestion.[2] Gastric folds may be seen during esophagogastroduodenoscopy or in radiological studies.[3][4]
– Sub-mucosal layer – This layer consists of different vessels and nerves, ganglion neurons, and adipose tissue. It is the second layer of the stomach and supports the mucosa.[6]
– The folds become very thick due to inflammation.[7]. – Ulcers cause breaks in the mucosa and cause erosion of the sub-mucosa.

Anatomy and Physiology II [3]

– Label on a diagram the four main regions of the stomach, its curvatures, and its sphincter. – Identify the four main types of secreting cells in gastric glands, and their important products
Although a minimal amount of carbohydrate digestion occurs in the mouth, chemical digestion really gets underway in the stomach. An expansion of the alimentary canal that lies immediately inferior to the esophagus, the stomach links the esophagus to the first part of the small intestine (the duodenum) and is relatively fixed in place at its esophageal and duodenal ends
These contractions provide mechanical assistance to digestion. The empty stomach is only about the size of your fist, but can stretch to hold as much as 4 liters of food and fluid, or more than 75 times its empty volume, and then return to its resting size when empty

LibGuides at Hostos Community College Library [4]

Unless otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License… Click on the printer icon at the bottom of the screen
If it doesn’t, try opening this guide in a different browser and printing from there (sometimes Internet Explorer works better, sometimes Chrome, sometimes Firefox, etc.).. If the above process produces printouts with errors or overlapping text or images, try this method:
An expansion of the alimentary canal that lies immediately inferior to the esophagus, the stomach links the esophagus to the first part of the small intestine (the duodenum) and is relatively fixed in place at its esophageal and duodenal ends. In between, however, it can be a highly active structure, contracting and continually changing position and size

Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis: Stomach [5]

This book is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ ), which permits others to distribute the work, provided that the article is not altered or used commercially. You are not required to obtain permission to distribute this article, provided that you credit the author and journal.
Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-.. The stomach is an important organ and the most dilated portion of the digestive system
It is a large, muscular, and hollow organ allowing for a capacity to hold food. It is comprised of 4 main regions, the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus

The Stomach: Anatomy and 3D Illustrations [6]

The stomach is the main food storage tank of the body. If it were not for the stomach’s storage capacity, we would have to eat constantly instead of just a few times each day
The stomach is a rounded, hollow organ located just inferior to the diaphragm in the left part of the abdominal cavity. Located between the esophagus and the duodenum, the stomach is a roughly crescent-shaped enlargement of the gastrointestinal tract
Rugae both allow the stomach to stretch in order to accommodate large meals and help to grip and move food during digestion.. The stomach can be divided into four regions based on shape and function:

A review on the food digestion in the digestive tract and the used in vitro models [7]

A review on the food digestion in the digestive tract and the used in vitro models. It is crucial to replicate or mimic the human digestive system conditions closely in model systems to have the food digestion-related data as accurate as possible
This review aims to express the human digestion system’s role in food digestion and compare the capability of the models used in simulations, especially the dynamic in vitro models. Activities of the human digestive system governing food digestion and the food matrix’s disintegration mechanism in the digestive system were discussed
Advancements in the last 20 years, as well as limitations of those artificial systems, with prospects, were discussed. Extensive use and improvement on these models will extend our knowledge of the food matrix and digestive system’s complex interaction

Digestive System Anatomy and Physiology [8]

Children are fascinated by the workings of the digestive system: they relish crunching a potato chip, delight in making “mustaches” with milk, and giggle when their stomach growls. As adults, we know that a healthy digestive system is essential for good health because it converts food into raw materials that build and fuel our body cells.
Food must be placed into the mouth before it can be acted on; this is an active, voluntary process called ingestion.. If foods are to be processed by more than one digestive organ, they must be propelled from one organ to the next; swallowing is one example of food movement that depends largely on the propulsive process called peristalsis (involuntary, alternating waves of contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the organ wall).
The sequence of steps in which large food molecules are broken down into their building blocks by enzymes is called chemical digestion.. Transport of digested end products from the lumen of the GI tract to the blood or lymph is absorption, and for absorption to happen, the digested foods must first enter the mucosal cells by active or passive transport processes.

Human digestive system – Esophagus, Stomach, Intestines [9]

The esophagus, which passes food from the pharynx to the stomach, is about 25 cm (10 inches) in length; the width varies from 1.5 to 2 cm (about 1 inch). The esophagus lies behind the trachea and heart and in front of the spinal column; it passes through the diaphragm before entering the stomach.
The mucosa is made up of stratified squamous epithelium containing numerous mucous glands. The submucosa is a thick, loose fibrous layer connecting the mucosa to the muscularis
The muscularis is composed of an inner layer, in which the fibres are circular, and an outer layer of longitudinal fibres. Both muscle groups are wound around and along the alimentary tract, but the inner one has a very tight spiral, so that the windings are virtually circular, whereas the outer one has a very slowly unwinding spiral that is virtually longitudinal

Overeating: The anatomy and physiology of how the stomach works [10]

While December and the holidays is a time for celebration, being with friends and family, and appreciating what you have, it is also a time of excess – alcohol, partying and lots and lots of food! Have you ever thought about what goes on inside your stomach to cope with all this extra food? If you have ever felt so full you might burst, then read on as we reveal the anatomy of the stomach and how it stretches when we eat, the consequences of overeating, and importantly how we can control our portion sizes and stay healthy.. Your stomach is part of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the digestive system, and its function is to digest the food you eat
It varies in size from person to person depending on when and how much you have eaten.. Structurally, your stomach is made up of tissue and several layers of muscle that can be broken down as below:
It’s covered in folds (small ridges called rugae) when empty, and these expand and flatten as your stomach becomes full.. – Submucosa – This covers and protects the mucosa and also contains nerve cells, lymph vessels, blood vessels and connective tissue.

Peritoneum: Anatomy, Function, Location & Definition [11]

Your peritoneum is a membrane, a sheet of smooth tissue that lines your abdominopelvic cavity and surrounds your abdominal organs. It pads and insulates your organs, helps hold them in place and secretes a lubricating fluid to reduce friction when they rub against each other
Your peritoneum has several functions, some of which researchers are still learning about. Layers of the peritoneum contain fat that warms and protects your organs.
Ligaments in your peritoneum connect your organs to each other and attach your intestines to your back abdominal wall.. Nerves and vessels run through the layers of your peritoneum.

Digestive System of Frog [12]

The digestive system of frogs comprises the alimentary canal or digestive tract along with the related digestive glands. The system chiefly includes the digestive glands and the alimentary canal
The different parts of the digestive system of frogs and their glands are discussed briefly in this article, read on.. In frogs, the alimentary canal is said to be complete
It is a very wide gap extending from one side of the snout to the other. The two bony jaws are found in the mouth, and the jaws are covered by the immovable lips

Human digestive system [13]

The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder). Digestion involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components, until they can be absorbed and assimilated into the body
The first stage, the cephalic phase of digestion, begins with secretions from gastric glands in response to the sight and smell of food. This stage includes the mechanical breakdown of food by chewing, and the chemical breakdown by digestive enzymes, that takes place in the mouth
Chewing, in which the food is mixed with saliva, begins the mechanical process of digestion. This produces a bolus which is swallowed down the esophagus to enter the stomach.

Differences in Small & Large Intestines [14]

To find a pediatrician or pediatric specialist, please call 412-692-7337 or search our directory.. A resource for our network of referring physicians.
The intestine is a muscular tube which extends from the lower end of your stomach to your anus, the lower opening of the digestive tract. Food and the products of digestion pass through the intestine, which is divided into two sections called the small intestine and the large intestine.
By the time food reaches your small intestine, it has already been broken up and mashed into liquid by your stomach. Each day, your small intestine receives between one and three gallons (or six to twelve liters) of this liquid

Stomach histology [15]

The stomach is a key part of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, sitting between the esophagus and duodenum. Its functions are to mix food with stomach acid and break food down into smaller particles using chemical and mechanical digestion.
These are the gastric mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa and serosa. All parts of the GI tract tend to follow this same pattern of tissue layer arrangement, which means that the stomach is essentially just a widening of the GI tube
Gastric glands: parietal, chief, enteroendocrine cells. |Submucosa||Connective tissue, submucosal (Meissner’s) plexus|

Stomach lining damage: common causes & symptoms [16]

The stomach is an organ that sits on the upper left side of your abdomen. It is one of the essential organs in the gastrointestinal tract.
It creates digestive juices to break down the food so your body can absorb the nutrients and pass waste into the small intestine.. The structure of the stomach comprises several layers of muscle and other tissues:
– The muscularis externa: the stomach muscle responsible for contracting and relaxing to break down food.. – The submucosa: the layer of connective tissue, nerve cells, lymph vessels, and blood vessels of the stomach.

15.1 Digestive Systems – Concepts of Biology – 1st Canadian Edition [17]

– Explain the processes of digestion and absorption. – Compare and contrast different types of digestive systems
– Describe the ways in which organs work together to digest food and absorb nutrients. Animals obtain their nutrition from the consumption of other organisms
The nutrients and macromolecules present in food are not immediately accessible to the cells. There are a number of processes that modify food within the animal body in order to make the nutrients and organic molecules accessible for cellular function

the folds in the mucosa of the stomach which allows it to expand as it fills with food are the
17 the folds in the mucosa of the stomach which allows it to expand as it fills with food are the Guides


  1. https://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/stomach-cross-section#:~:text=The%20inner%20oblique%20layer%20also,churns%2C%20further%20breaking%20it%20down.
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastric_folds#:~:text=The%20gastric%20folds%20(or%20gastric,submucosal%20layers%20of%20the%20stomach.
  3. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-ap2/chapter/the-stomach/
  4. https://guides.hostos.cuny.edu/bio140/5-17
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482334/
  6. https://www.innerbody.com/image_digeov/dige11-new.html
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134715/
  8. https://nurseslabs.com/digestive-system/
  9. https://www.britannica.com/science/human-digestive-system/Esophagus
  10. https://www.primalpictures.com/blogs/overeating-anatomy-physiology-stomach/
  11. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/body/22894-peritoneum
  12. https://byjus.com/neet/digestive-system-of-frog/
  13. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_digestive_system
  14. https://www.chp.edu/our-services/transplant/intestine/education/about-small-large-intestines
  15. https://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/stomach-histology
  16. https://mirxes.com/blog/stomach-lining-damage-causes-symptoms/
  17. https://opentextbc.ca/biology/chapter/15-1-digestive-systems/
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