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2 Steel slag as low-cost catalyst for artificial photosynthesis to convert CO2 and water into hydrogen and methanol 
11 Artificial Photosynthesis an Alternative Source of Renewable Energy: Potential and Limitations 
13 Artificial intelligence driven design of catalysts and materials for ring opening polymerization using a domain-specific language 
14 Latest advances in Artificial Photosynthesis: a hidden gem in the realm of alternative energy technologies 
The artificial leaf that’s turning sunlight into fuel…
The artificial leaf that’s turning sunlight into fuel…
The artificial leaf that’s turning sunlight into fuel…
Steel slag as low-cost catalyst for artificial photosynthesis to convert CO2 and water into hydrogen and methanol 
Photoreduction of CO2 with sunlight to produce solar fuels, also named artificial photosynthesis, is considered one of the most attractive strategies to face the challenge of reducing greenhouse gases and achieving climate neutrality. Following an approach in line with the principles of the circular economy, the low-cost catalytic system (1) based on an industrial by-product such as steel slag was assessed, which was properly modified with nanostructured palladium on its surface in order to make it capable of promoting the conversion of CO2 into methanol and hydrogen through a two-stage process of photoreduction and thermal conversion having formic acid as the intermediate
One of the main concerns related to environmental impact of human activity is the carbon dioxide emission, which is responsible for the global warming. In the short term, the current fossil-based technologies which are the primary cause of CO2 production, are unlikely to be replaced by more sustainable one
In this context, photocatalytic reduction of CO2 with H2O using solar energy, well-known as artificial photosynthesis, is considered one of the most elegant and investigated strategies1,2. As a result, solar fuels and high-value chemicals such as formic acid, methane and methanol can be obtained3,4
Which of the following is not required for photosynthesis? 
Which of the following is not required for photosynthesis?. Photosynthesis is the process of synthesis of food by plants using carbon dioxide and water in presence of sunlight and chlorophyll
Hence, oxygen is not essential for the process of photosynthesis.
Harvard’s bionic leaf could help feed the world 
As the global population rises toward 10 billion, the planet is headed for a food shortage, with some estimates saying supply will have to double by 2050 to meet demand.. The continued advance of agricultural technology — genetic modification along with new crop varieties and land-management techniques — will cover some of the increased demand
The problem with this scenario is that much of the demand will be in the developing world, often in regions that lack both the factories and the distribution networks for agricultural chemicals.. In response, Harvard scientists are asking: What if soil could enrich itself, through microbes that boost crop yields? And what if those microbes were themselves grown sustainably, in compact, sunlight-fueled bioreactors?
The bionic leaf is an outgrowth of Nocera’s artificial leaf, which efficiently splits water into hydrogen and oxygen gas by pairing silicon — the material that makes up solar panels — with catalyst coatings. The hydrogen gas can be stored on site and used to drive fuel cells, providing a way to store and use power that originates from the sun.
Artificial Photosynthesis 
After wandering around downtown Amsterdam, taking photos of the famous picturesque canals, Max and Lily headed to the, also world famous, University of Amsterdam. As part of their solar energy initiative, they were working on artificial photosynthesis.
“We use energy for many things, but there are three basic requirements” Lily started. “For heating, electricity production, and transport
Max however, couldn’t help but feel a little disappointed. He held at eye level a beaker containing a photocatalytic cell in water
The Artificial Leaf 
Daniel Nocera was a science-minded high-school junior in New Jersey at the beginning of the Arab oil embargo, in 1973. American fuel prices soared, the stock market crashed, Congress prohibited speed limits higher than fifty-five miles an hour, and President Nixon banned the sale of gasoline on Sundays
By then, Nocera was a graduate student in chemistry at the California Institute of Technology. Within a short time, he had decided to devote his science career to energy.
Green plants store energy from the sun in chemical bonds, and we exploit that energy when we eat plants, or when we eat animals that have eaten plants, or when we burn either plants or substances ultimately derived from plants: firewood, peat, coal, oil, natural gas, ethanol. Photosynthesis has been understood in a general way for a long time and is familiar even to grade-school students—water and carbon dioxide in; oxygen and carbohydrates out—but the process is complex, and until fairly recently important parts of it remained mysterious
The race to invent the artificial leaf 
Since the early 1970s, scientists have been on a quest to develop a technology that could create liquid fuels out of carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight far more efficiently than photosynthesis, the process by which plants harness sunlight to produce carbohydrates and store energy. A commercially viable artificial leaf would solve several of the trickiest challenges in clean energy
Scientists have made slow but considerable progress on the two crucial steps in the process: developing catalysts that use solar energy to split water into oxygen and hydrogen, and creating others that can convert hydrogen and carbon dioxide into an energy-dense fuel. The remaining trick is to combine these tasks in an affordable and scalable way, using cheap and abundant materials.
On a balmy Beverly Hills evening recently, members of the Council on Foreign Relations gathered at the Peninsula Hotel to listen to a scientist share his vision for creating an artificial leaf.. Among the collection of executives and ex-ambassadors, most were unsure what to expect
An artificial leaf for splitting water 
Chemical model systems can be used to study the processes of plant photosynthesis with the goal of tapping sunlight as a source for covering the energy needs of the future. Researchers from Ulm have now developed an artificial leaf based on a manganese-vanadium oxide catalyst which can effectively carry out the critical photocatalytic reaction of splitting water molecules into hydrogen ions and molecular oxygen.
Photosynthesis is the process by which these organisms use the energy from sunlight to synthesise organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water. Only the first step, the splitting of water into molecular oxygen and hydrogen, requires light
The photosynthesis apparatus can be considered a natural solar panel, which, however, is rather inefficient with the energy provided by the sunlight. Plants utilise only a tiny fraction – about 0.3 percent of the incident sunlight – for the production of chemical energy
Artificial photosynthesis: the ultimate renewable tech 
Around 3.5 billion years ago, plants became able to turn sunlight and carbon dioxide into energy. Researchers in the field of artificial photosynthesis are figuring out how humans could do the same.
Finally, this electricity is used to break down carbon dioxide into glucose. Over the last few decades, scientists have been reconstructing each stage to piece together a total artificial photosystem
Scaling artificial photosynthesis would revolutionise energy production because AP overcomes a major drawback of existing solar and wind power technologies – the fact that they can only produce electricity.. Anyone who finds themselves regularly caught out on a 1 percent charge knows that electricity is difficult to store
Role of Nanocellulose in Light Harvesting and Artificial Photosynthesis 
Role of Nanocellulose in Light Harvesting and Artificial Photosynthesis. Processing of Nanocellulose Structures for Artificial Photosynthesis
Nanocellulose for Light Harvesting and Light Interactions. Efficiency of Light Interactions in Nanofiber Structures
Mimicking Nature for Artificial Photosynthesis Platforms. Assembled Nanocellulose Composites in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems
Artificial Photosynthesis an Alternative Source of Renewable Energy: Potential and Limitations 
Artificial photosynthesis system (APS) uses biomimetic systems to duplicate the process of natural photosynthesis that utilizes copious resources of water, carbon dioxide and sunlight to produce oxygen and energy-rich compounds and has potential to be an alternative source of renewable energy. APS like natural photosynthesis includes the splitting of water into oxygen and hydrogen, and the reduction of carbon dioxide into various hydrocarbons such as formic acid (HCOOH), methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO), or even pure hydrogen fuel
Researchers are trying to combine advantageous components from both natural photosynthesis and artificial photosynthesis to create a semi-artificial photosynthesis system, involving the incorporation of enzymes or even whole-cell into synthetic devices. However, there are several limitations to the advancement of this field which are mainly centered on the inability to establish a system that is cost-effective, long-term durable and has the highest efficiency
Although there is still a long way to go to empower society with energy supplied through artificial photosynthesis, at the same time it is both desirable and necessary. To date, the efforts to commercialize APS have been fruitful, and it will soon be a viable alternative fuel source.
‘Artificial leaf’ successfully produces clean gas 
A widely-used gas that is currently produced from fossil fuels can instead be made by an ‘artificial leaf’ that uses only sunlight, carbon dioxide and water, and which could eventually be used to develop a sustainable liquid fuel alternative to petrol.. A widely-used gas that is currently produced from fossil fuels can instead be made by an ‘artificial leaf’ that uses only sunlight, carbon dioxide and water, and which could eventually be used to develop a sustainable liquid fuel alternative to petrol.
The carbon-neutral device sets a new benchmark in the field of solar fuels, after researchers at the University of Cambridge demonstrated that it can directly produce the gas – called syngas – in a sustainable and simple way.. Rather than running on fossil fuels, the artificial leaf is powered by sunlight, although it still works efficiently on cloudy and overcast days
The results are reported in the journal Nature Materials.. Syngas is currently made from a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and is used to produce a range of commodities, such as fuels, pharmaceuticals, plastics and fertilisers.
Artificial intelligence driven design of catalysts and materials for ring opening polymerization using a domain-specific language 
Advances in machine learning (ML) and automated experimentation are poised to vastly accelerate research in polymer science. Data representation is a critical aspect for enabling ML integration in research workflows, yet many data models impose significant rigidity making it difficult to accommodate a broad array of experiment and data types found in polymer science
Here we show that a domain specific language, termed Chemical Markdown Language (CMDL), provides flexible, extensible, and consistent representation of disparate experiment types and polymer structures. CMDL enables seamless use of historical experimental data to fine-tune regression transformer (RT) models for generative molecular design tasks
Critically, we show how the CMDL tuned model preserves key functional groups within the polymer structure, allowing for experimental validation. These results reveal the versatility of CMDL and how it facilitates translation of historical data into meaningful predictive and generative models to produce experimentally actionable output.
Latest advances in Artificial Photosynthesis: a hidden gem in the realm of alternative energy technologies. Raj Shah and Mrinaleni Das on behalf of Koehler Instrument Company
During this process, sunlight is used to split water which is later stored as NADPH/H+ and translated to ATP through ATP synthase. However, even the most efficient plant is unable to store more than 1% of solar energy
Since most of the existent sources of energy (e.g., coal, gas, etc.) are considered to be unsustainable in the long run and have negative impacts on the environment, it is more important now than ever to find sustainable, cost-effective sources of energy .. During the 1900s, Italian Scientist Giacomo Ciamician first developed the idea of artificial photosynthesis to capture solar energy using photochemistry devices and convert it to solar fuel, which can be stored for later
The Parts of the Periodic Table 
|7||Th||Pa||U||Np||Pu||Am||Cm||Bk||Cf||Es||Fm||Md||No||Lr|. The transition elements or transition metals occupy the short columns in the center of the periodic table, between Group 2A and Group 3A
Taking a leaf out of plants’ books 
Learning to mimic natural photosynthesis on an industrial scale might open the door to a fossil fuel-free future. We have created a global climate emergency and our reliance on fossil fuels is largely to blame
We can now produce electricity without emitting carbon dioxide, and carbon-neutral electricity production methods are ever more common place. But practical and cost issues mean that coal and natural gas continue to dominate in most parts of the world
Nuclear power is another low-carbon method, but suffers from a negative public perception and toxic waste logistics.. It’s much harder to heat homes, power planes, trains and automobiles without using chemicals derived from fossil fuels, not to mention producing the multitude of compounds and materials that our modern world is dependent upon
Recent Progress and Approaches on Carbon-Free Energy from Water Splitting 
Recent Progress and Approaches on Carbon-Free Energy from Water Splitting. Sunlight is the most abundant renewable energy resource, providing the earth with enough power that is capable of taking care of all of humanity’s desires—a hundred times over
With increasing population in the world and modern economic development, there will be an additional increase in energy demand. Devices that use daylight to separate water into individual chemical elements may well be the answer to this issue, as water splitting produces an ideal fuel
Therefore, it is essential to research for cheap technologies for water ripping. This review summarizes the progress made toward such development, the open challenges existing, and the approaches undertaken to generate carbon-free energy through water splitting.
Artificial leaves make fuel from sunlight – Physics World 
Two teams of researchers in the US have taken important steps towards the creation of commercially viable “artificial leaf” – a hypothetical device that can turn sunlight into electrical energy or fuel by mimicking some aspects of photosynthesis.. Earlier this year, the chemist Daniel Nocera at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) announced artificial-leaf prototypes at the annual meeting of the American Chemical Society in California
Both teams made their devices from silicon wafers that are coated with catalytic metals and protective layers. The prototype solar cells are about the size of a credit card and can capture sunlight and then use the energy to split water into its constituent oxygen and hydrogen
With these new devices, the ultimate plan is to recombine the two gases in an integrated fuel cell, thus converting the chemical energy to electrical energy. Producing fuel rather than electricity has the advantage that the fuel can be easily stored until it is needed.