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8 The human fatty acid-binding protein family: Evolutionary divergences and functions – Human Genomics 
Vitamins A D E K – Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamins A D E K – Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamins A D E K – Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Lipid Types and Structures – Nutrition: Science and Everyday Application, v. 1.0 
are a family of organic compounds that are mostly insoluble in water, meaning they do not mix well with water. There are three main types of lipids: triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols
are the main form of lipids in the body and in foods. More than 95 percent of lipids in the diet are in the form of triglycerides, some having a visible presence and some hidden in foods
But fat can also be hidden in foods, as in baked goods, dairy products like milk and cheese, and fried foods. Naturally occurring triglycerides are found in many foods, including avocados, olives, corn, and nuts
Biochemistry, Lipids 
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Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-.. Fats and lipids are an essential component of the homeostatic function of the human body
Lipids are fatty, waxy, or oily compounds that are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in polar solvents such as water. Fats and oils are esters made up of glycerol (a 3-carbon sugar alcohol/polyol) and 3 fatty acids
The Lipid Bilayer 
By agreement with the publisher, this book is accessible by the search feature, but cannot be browsed.. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
It is easily seen by electron microscopy, although specialized techniques, such as x-ray diffraction and freeze-fracture electron microscopy, are needed to reveal the details of its organization. The bilayer structure is attributable to the special properties of the lipid molecules, which cause them to assemble spontaneously into bilayers even under simple artificial conditions.
Lipid—that is, fatty—molecules constitute about 50% of the mass of most animal cell membranes, nearly all of the remainder being protein. There are approximately 5 × 106 lipid molecules in a 1 μm × 1 μm area of lipid bilayer, or about 109 lipid molecules in the plasma membrane of a small animal cell
– The biggest influence on blood cholesterol level is the mix of fats and carbohydrates in your diet—not the amount of cholesterol you eat from food.. – Although it remains important to limit the amount of cholesterol you eat, especially if you have diabetes, for most people dietary cholesterol is not as problematic as once believed.
– Cholesterol in the bloodstream, specifically the bad LDL cholesterol, is what’s most important in determining health risk.. Fat and cholesterol can’t dissolve in water or blood
Lipoproteins can transport a lot of fat; they mix easily with blood and flow with it. Some of these particles are big and fluffy, while others are small and dense
Chapter 5 Nutrition 
When a fatty acid is described as being saturated, it means that it ________ .. Contains only single bonds between its carbon atoms
The first number indicates the number of carbon atoms and the second number indicates the number of double bonds.. The position of the double bond closest to the methyl (CH3) end of a fatty acid is described by a(n) ________ number.
When examining a molecule of lecithin, chemists note that a phosphate group and a molecule of ________ occupy the third attachment site.. What members of the lipid family are soluble in both water and fat?
6.2: What Are Lipids? 
Lipids are important fats that serve different roles in the human body. A common misconception is that fat is simply fattening
Throughout history, there have been many instances when food was scarce. Our ability to store excess caloric energy as fat for future usage allowed us to continue as a species during these times of famine
Lipids are a family of organic compounds that are mostly insoluble in water. Composed of fats and oils, lipids are molecules that yield high energy and have a chemical composition mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
The human fatty acid-binding protein family: Evolutionary divergences and functions – Human Genomics 
The human fatty acid-binding protein family: Evolutionary divergences and functions. Human Genomics volume 5, Article number: 170 (2011)
FABPs are small, structurally conserved cytosolic proteins consisting of a water-filled, interior-binding pocket surrounded by ten anti-parallel beta sheets, forming a beta barrel. At the superior surface, two alpha-helices cap the pocket and are thought to regulate binding
FABPs demonstrate strong evolutionary conservation and are present in a spectrum of species including Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, mouse and human. The human genome consists of nine putatively functional protein-coding FABP genes
Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds which include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The functions of lipids include storing energy, signaling, and acting as structural components of cell membranes. Lipids have applications in the cosmetic and food industries, and in nanotechnology.
Biological lipids originate entirely or in part from two distinct types of biochemical subunits or “building-blocks”: ketoacyl and isoprene groups. Using this approach, lipids may be divided into eight categories: fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, and polyketides (derived from condensation of ketoacyl subunits); and sterol lipids and prenol lipids (derived from condensation of isoprene subunits).. Although the term “lipid” is sometimes used as a synonym for fats, fats are a subgroup of lipids called triglycerides
In 1815, Henri Braconnot classified lipids (graisses) in two categories, suifs (solid greases or tallow) and huiles (fluid oils). In 1823, Michel Eugène Chevreul developed a more detailed classification, including oils, greases, tallow, waxes, resins, balsams and volatile oils (or essential oils).. The first synthetic triglyceride was reported by Théophile-Jules Pelouze in 1844, when he produced tributyrin by treating butyric acid with glycerin in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid. Several years later, Marcellin Berthelot, one of Pelouze’s students, synthesized tristearin and tripalmitin by reaction of the analogous fatty acids with glycerin in the presence of gaseous hydrogen chloride at high temperature.
The common feature of these lipids is that they are all esters of moderate to long chain fatty acids. Acid or base-catalyzed hydrolysis yields the component fatty acid, some examples of which are given in the following table, together with the alcohol component of the lipid
Natural fatty acids may be saturated or unsaturated, and as the following data indicate, the saturated acids have higher melting points than unsaturated acids of corresponding size. The double bonds in the unsaturated compounds listed on the right are all cis (or Z).
The cis-double bond(s) in the unsaturated fatty acids introduce a kink in their shape, which makes it more difficult to pack their molecules together in a stable repeating array or crystalline lattice. The trans-double bond isomer of oleic acid, known as elaidic acid, has a linear shape and a melting point of 45 ºC (32 ºC higher than its cis isomer)
Any biomolecule that dissolves in nonpolar solvents such as chloroform (CHCl3), benzene (C6H6), or diethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3) is classified as a lipid (from the Greek lipos, “fat”). Because they are soluble in nonpolar solvents, lipids are often insoluble or only marginally soluble in water, and they often feel oily or greasy to the touch.
These fatty acids are subdivided into two categories on the basis of whether they contain C=C double bonds: saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids.. The common names of carboxylic acids trace back to Latin or Greek stems, which indicate a natural source of the acid
Vinegar is a 5 to 6% solution of acetic acid in water. Acetic acid therefore takes its common name from the Latin term for vinegar: acetum
Lipid | Definition, Structure, Examples, Functions, Types, & Facts 
Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.. – steroid isoprenoid prostaglandin lipoprotein phospholipid
One type of lipid, the triglycerides, is sequestered as fat in adipose cells, which serve as the energy-storage depot for organisms and also provide thermal insulation. Some lipids such as steroid hormones serve as chemical messengers between cells, tissues, and organs, and others communicate signals between biochemical systems within a single cell
Membranes function to separate individual cells from their environments and to compartmentalize the cell interior into structures that carry out special functions. So important is this compartmentalizing function that membranes, and the lipids that form them, must have been essential to the origin of life itself.
The spectrum of lipid functions can be condensed into. Nonglyceride lipids (sphingolipids, steroids, waxes)
The carboxylic acid products found in the saponifiable lipids are referred to as fatty acids. The fatty acids are long, unbranched monocarboxylic acids containing 10 to 22 carbon atoms
The Fatty acids can be classified into families based on chain length and on the number of C=C double bonds present. (Saturated = bonded to the maximum number of hydrogens; will not accept any more hydrogen) Unsaturated fatty acids contain C=C double bonds
Is cholesterol a lipid? Function and management 
The two main types are high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL).. Cholesterol has an important role in the body, but an excessive amount can lead to a buildup in the arteries
This article explains whether cholesterol is a lipid and what roles it plays in the body. It also discusses how to measure and manage lipid levels, which can be important in preventing health issues.
Although too much cholesterol can cause health problems, the body needs some cholesterol to remain healthy. The production of cholesterol takes place in the liver
Overview of Cholesterol and Lipid Disorders 
It also uses them to synthesize hormones and other substances needed for the body’s activities. The body may deposit excess fat in blood vessels and within organs, where it can block blood flow and damage organs, often causing serious disorders.
The body uses cholesterol to make vitamin D and various hormones, such as estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol. The body can produce all the cholesterol that it needs, but it also obtains cholesterol from food.
Triglycerides are produced in the intestine and liver from smaller fats called fatty acids Fats . Some types of fatty acids are made by the body, but others must be obtained from food.
Pediatric Lipid Disorders in Clinical Practice: Background, Pathophysiology 
The early stages of atherosclerosis begin in childhood, according to multiple studies.  If premature development of cardiovascular disease can be anticipated during childhood, the disease might be prevented
Patients and families should be educated about appropriate diet, activity levels, and risk factors.. See the Medscape Drugs and Diseases articles Hypertriglyceridemia, Familial Hypercholesterolemia, and Lipid Management Guidelines.
However, these lipids can be transported throughout the bloodstream as lipoproteins when packaged with phospholipids and proteins (apoproteins). Lipoproteins have an outer core of cholesterol, phospholipids, and apoproteins and an inner core composed of TG and cholesterol ester (CE)
Chapter 8: The Major Macromolecules 
Within all lifeforms on Earth, from the tiniest bacterium to the giant sperm whale, there are four major classes of organic macromolecules that are always found and are essential to life. These are the carbohydrates, lipids (or fats), proteins, and nucleic acids
In Chapter 6, you were introduced to the polymers of life and their building block structures, as shown below in Figure 11.1. Recall that the monomer units for building the nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, are the nucleotide bases, whereas the monomers for proteins are amino acids, for carbohydrates are sugar residues, and for lipids are fatty acids or acetyl groups.
You will find that the major macromolecules are held together by the same chemical linkages that you’ve been exploring in Chapters 9 and 10, and rely heavily on dehydration synthesis for their formation, and hydrolysis for their breakdown.. Figure 11.1: The Molecular building blocks of life are made from organic compounds.
DrugBank Online 
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids
Calcitriol An active metabolite of vitamin D that is used to treat hyperparathyroidism and is also used in dialysis patients to combat hypocalcemia. Ergocalciferol A vitamin found in many supplement products
Travoprost A prostaglandin analog used in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure due to open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Mupirocin An antibacterial ointment used to treat impetigo and secondary skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes