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16 Understanding Natural Selection: Essential Concepts and Common Misconceptions – Evolution: Education and Outreach 
Why is biodiversity so important? – Kim Preshoff
Why is biodiversity so important? – Kim Preshoff
Why is biodiversity so important? – Kim Preshoff
9.6 Temperature and Microbial Growth – Microbiology: Canadian Edition 
– Illustrate and briefly describe minimum, optimum, and maximum temperature requirements for growth. – Identify and describe different categories of microbes with temperature requirements for growth: psychrophile, psychrotrophs, mesophile, thermophile, hyperthermophile
When the exploration of Lake Whillans started in Antarctica, researchers did not expect to find much life. Constant subzero temperatures and lack of obvious sources of nutrients did not seem to be conditions that would support a thriving ecosystem
In a different but equally harsh setting, bacteria and archaea grow at the bottom of the ocean around deep sea vents (Figure 9.38), where temperatures can reach 340 °C (700 °F). In fact, some of those bacteria and archaea are the primary producers of the vent ecosystem, providing fixed carbon for the other organisms.
Biosphere – Climate, Ecosystems, Biodiversity 
Most organisms are limited to either a terrestrial or an aquatic environment. An organism’s ability to tolerate local conditions within its environment further restricts its distribution
Extreme environmental variables can evoke physiological and behavioral responses from organisms. The physiological response helps the organism maintain a constant internal environment (homeostasis), while a behavioral response allows it to avoid the environmental challenge—a fallback strategy if homeostasis cannot be maintained.
With few exceptions, life cannot exist outside the temperature range at which water is a liquid. Thus, liquid water, and temperatures that maintain water as a liquid, are essential for sustaining life
Primary Connections: Linking science with literacy 
deserts, the bark of a tree, cities and rivers are all habitats.. The environment is the set of conditions that exist within the habitat
They have features (adaptations) which have evolved over a. long period of time which help them to survive under those conditions.
affect the ability of some species to survive and therefore alter relationships. organisms! Water availability varies with climate, including total annual
What is natural selection? 
You will be able to access your list from any article in Discover.. Organisms that are more adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and pass on the genes that aided their success
Natural selection is one of the ways to account for the millions of species that have lived on Earth.. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) are jointly credited with coming up with the theory of evolution by natural selection, having co-published on it in 1858
In Darwin and Wallace’s time, most believed that organisms were too complex to have natural origins and must have been designed by a transcendent God. Natural selection, however, states that even the most complex organisms occur by totally natural processes.
Adaptation and Survival 
Any number of characteristics can vary among individuals of a given species — some may be larger, hairier, fight off infections better, or have smaller ears. These characteristics are largely determined by their genes, which are passed down from their parents and subsequently passed down to their own offspring
If those traits are particularly helpful, individuals with those traits will produce more offspring than those without. Over generations, the number of individuals with that advantageous trait, or adaptation, will increase until it becomes a general attribute of the species.
An adaptation can also be behavioral, affecting the way an organism responds to its environment.. An example of a structural adaptation is the way some plants have adapted to life in dry, hot deserts
The variety of organisms able to adapt to various environments on earth 
The variety of organisms able to adapt to various environments on earth is called biodiversity. It is the sum of all living organisms in an environment
Genetic diversity is the variety of genes that control inheritable characteristics present in an organism. For example, butterflies come in a variety of colors, and the color of each butterfly is determined by its genes.
For example, a rainforest composed of different species of trees. As species diversity increases, the health of the ecosystem also increases.
Ecologists Study the Interactions of Organisms and Their Environment 
The diversity of producer species, on which all life depends, is immense, and ranges from cyanobacteria to towering trees in tropical and temperate rainforests. Plant life clothes much of Earth’s land surface, providing structure to ecosystems (e.g., interacting systems of organisms and their physical environment), habitat for consumers, and regulating the exchange of energy and chemicals with the atmosphere
Over time, nutrients are returned from the oceans to the land through the movements of organisms, atmospheric gaseous exchange, or slower geological processes, such as the uplift of ocean sediments (Schlesinger 1997).. Ecological scientists who study this complex web of life take diverse approaches
For example, such research might investigate whether greater biodiversity tends to make ecosystems more or less susceptible to invasion by exotic species. In other cases, research focuses on specific issues that offer insights useful for ecosystem management
Developmental and Evolutionary History Affect Survival in Stressful Environments 
The world is increasingly impacted by a variety of stressors that have the potential to differentially influence life history stages of organisms. Organisms have evolved to cope with some stressors, while with others they have little capacity
We present evidence of the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival of a freshwater vertebrate, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) in an osmotically stressful environment. We compared the survival of larvae in either NaCl or MgCl2 that were exposed to salinity either as larvae only or as embryos as well
Larval survival was also dependent on the type of salt (NaCl or MgCl2) the larvae were exposed to, and was lowest in MgCl2, a widely-used chemical deicer that, unlike NaCl, amphibian larvae do not have an evolutionary history of regulating at high levels. Both developmental and evolutionary history are critical factors in determining survival in this stressful environment, a pattern that may have widespread implications for the survival of animals increasingly impacted by substances with which they have little evolutionary history.
Learn Science at Scitable 
A female North Pacific Giant Octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) lives three to four years; it lays thousands of eggs in a single bout and then dies. By contrast, a mature Coast Redwood Tree (Sequoia sempervirens) lives for many hundreds of years and produces millions of seeds each year (Figure 1)
Together, the age-, size-, or stage-specific patterns of development, growth, maturation, reproduction, survival, and lifespan define an organism’s life cycle, its life history.. The principal aim of life history theory, a branch of evolutionary ecology, is to explain the remarkable diversity in life histories among species
The study of life history evolution is thus about understanding adaptation, the most fundamental issue in evolutionary biology.. Here we introduce the basics of life history theory and review what biologists have learned about life history evolution
Habitat and Adaptation 
Habitat and AdaptationCommon caiman (Caiman crocodilus), also called Narrow-snouted spectacled caiman. Every organism has a unique ecosystem within which it lives
All organisms need to adapt to their habitat to be able to survive.. This means adapting to be able to survive the climatic conditions of the ecosystem, predators, and other species that compete for the same food and space
Explore the links given here to know more about habitats and how different plants and animals.. An animal may adapt to its habitat in different ways
How Do Organisms Affect and Respond to Climate Change? 
Life on Earth is diverse at many levels, meaning there is a lot of variety within species and there are many different kinds of species. This biodiversity provides many of the resources that humans need and enhances our quality of life
In this article, we show how research on plants, animals, and microbes helps us better understand how living things can both impact and respond to climate change. This research also gives us insight into what the future might be like for life on Earth
Many different kinds of microbes, plants, and animals (including people) live on Earth. Collectively, all these different organisms make up Earth’s biodiversity
Teachers (U.S. National Park Service) 
– Upper Elementary: Third Grade through Fifth Grade. – Utah State Science Core Curriculum Topic, Standard Two: Students will understand that organisms depend on living and non-living things in their environment.
In the field, students examine the traits of juniper trees and play a game to model how the environment can act on traits and affect how trees appear. Students also examine kit fox traits and play a game to discover what happens when a trait provides an advantage for survival.
Strand 3.2: Effects of Traits on Survival Organisms (plants and animals, including humans) have unique and diverse life cycles, but they all follow a pattern of birth, growth, reproduction, and death. Different organisms vary in how they look and function because they have different inherited traits
Climate Change Impacts on Ecosystems 
Ecosystems are communities of living things, including plants, animals, and microorganisms, that interact with each other and the physical world.1 People depend on ecosystems for many benefits, such as food, water, clean air, building materials, and recreation. Ecosystems can be big, like the one that surrounds Yellowstone National Park,2 or as small as a single fallen tree
These connections between ecosystems also make them dependent on one another, and not simply dependent on the organisms within them.. Climate controls how plants grow, how animals behave, which organisms thrive, and how they all interact with the physical environment.3,4 As habitats experience different temperatures, precipitation patterns, and other changes, the organisms that make up ecosystems feel the effects
People are taking many actions to help ecosystems adapt to climate change impacts or minimize the effects. For example, federal agencies that manage the nation’s natural resources are now considering climate change in polices and planning
How survival curves affect populations’ vulnerability to climate change 
How survival curves affect populations’ vulnerability to climate change. – pone.0203124.s001.doc (386K)GUID: 83514C0F-49E1-4DF3-9A63-DE12B2989834pone.0203124.s002.xls (202K)GUID: 291E82FD-2531-461C-9BD3-B29B78B08687
Human activities are exposing organisms not only to direct threats (e.g. habitat loss) but also to indirect environmental pressures such as climate change, which involves not just directional global warming but also increasing climatic variability
Conservation-minded approaches to extinction risk vary from range shifts predicted by climate envelope models with no population dynamics to population viability analyses that ignore environmental variability altogether. Our modelling study shows that these extremes are modelling responses to a spectrum of environmental sensitivity that organisms may exhibit
Understanding Natural Selection: Essential Concepts and Common Misconceptions – Evolution: Education and Outreach 
Understanding Natural Selection: Essential Concepts and Common Misconceptions. Evolution: Education and Outreach volume 2, pages 156–175 (2009)
Without a working knowledge of natural selection, it is impossible to understand how or why living things have come to exhibit their diversity and complexity. An understanding of natural selection also is becoming increasingly relevant in practical contexts, including medicine, agriculture, and resource management
This paper provides an overview of the basic process of natural selection, discusses the extent and possible causes of misunderstandings of the process, and presents a review of the most common misconceptions that must be corrected before a functional understanding of natural selection and adaptive evolution can be achieved.. “There is probably no more original, more complex, and bolder concept in the history of ideas than Darwin’s mechanistic explanation of adaptation.”
Natural selection 
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype. It is a key mechanism of evolution, the change in the heritable traits characteristic of a population over generations
Variation exists within all populations of organisms. This occurs partly because random mutations arise in the genome of an individual organism, and their offspring can inherit such mutations
The environment of a genome includes the molecular biology in the cell, other cells, other individuals, populations, species, as well as the abiotic environment. Because individuals with certain variants of the trait tend to survive and reproduce more than individuals with other less successful variants, the population evolves
The animals that will survive climate change 
I think we’ll go quite early on,” says Julie Gray with a laugh. I’ve just asked Gray, a plant molecular biologist at the University of Sheffield, which species she thinks would be the last ones standing if we don’t take transformative action on climate change
This is partly because humans reproduce agonisingly slowly and generally just one or two at a time – as do some other favourite animals, like pandas. Organisms that can produce many offspring quickly may have a better shot at avoiding extinction.
As a blockbuster biodiversity report stated recently, one in every four species currently faces extinction. Much of this vulnerability is linked to climate change, which is bringing about higher temperatures, sea level rise, more variable conditions and more extreme weather, among other impacts.
Impact of peritonitis on long-term survival of peritoneal dialysis patients 
Antecedentes: El impacto de cada episodio de peritonitis sobre la supervivencia a largo plazo de los pacientes en diálisis peritoneal (DP) está por definir. Objetivos: Establecer el riesgo que supone para la supervivencia de los pacientes y de la técnica de DP cada episodio de peritonitis
Métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de un registro multicéntrico mediante regresión de Cox para variables cambiantes en el tiempo. Resultados: Se analizaron 1609 episodios de peritonitis en 716 pacientes (47,2%)
La mortalidad aumentó con cada episodio sucesivo en el mismo paciente. El análisis multivariante confirmó la asociación de cada peritonitis con una menor supervivencia a largo plazo (HR 2,01; p