22 which mission provided the first color video images from the surface of the moon? Tutorial

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Apollo TV camera [1]

The Apollo program used several television cameras in its space missions in the late 1960s and 1970s; some of these Apollo TV cameras were also used on the later Skylab and Apollo–Soyuz Test Project missions. These cameras varied in design, with image quality improving significantly with each successive model
Originally, these slow-scan television (SSTV) cameras, running at 10 frames per second (fps), produced only black-and-white pictures and first flew on the Apollo 7 mission in October 1968. A color camera – using a field-sequential color system – flew on the Apollo 10 mission in May 1969, and every mission after that
The cameras all used image pickup tubes that were initially fragile, as one was irreparably damaged during the live broadcast of the Apollo 12 mission’s first moonwalk. Starting with the Apollo 15 mission, a more robust, damage-resistant camera was used on the lunar surface

How many people have walked on the Moon? [2]

Find out about the astronauts who have visited the Moon. The first crewed lunar landing in 1969 was a historic triumph for the USA and humankind
“Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon July 1969 AD. “As long as there are history books, Neil Armstrong will be included in them, remembered for taking humankind’s first small step on a world beyond our own.”
“As we leave the Moon at Taurus-Littrow, we leave as we came and, God willing, as we shall return, with peace and hope for all mankind.”. Learn more about our closest celestial neighbour the Moon in our books published by Royal Museums Greenwich

Apollo 11 Samples [3]

This sample has a mass of 213 grams and is up to 8 centimeters across.. Apollo 11 carried the first geologic samples from the Moon back to Earth
These samples contain no water and provide no evidence for living organisms at any time in the Moon’s history.. The overall set of lunar samples collected during the Apollo program can be classified into three major rock types, basalts, breccias, and lunar highland rocks
This was one of the major scientific findings of the Apollo 11 mission.. On Earth, basalts are a common type of volcanic rock and are found in places such as Hawaii

Artemis II astronauts, including 1st woman and 1st person of color to be on moon mission, share excitement about upcoming trip [4]

Four astronauts are making history as the first team to head to the moon in more than 50 years.. Victor Glover, Christina Hammock Koch and Reid Wiseman of NASA and Jeremy Hansen of the Canadian Space Agency make up the Artemis II team that will fly by the moon
They spoke with ABC News’ Gio Benitez on “ABC News Live” Monday afternoon about their upcoming mission as well as their excitement.. “I think the thing that’s most going through our minds right now is the team,” said Wiseman, who will be the commander of the flight
And it’s great to have this tiny step completed today. And we are really pumped to take on this challenge.”

Hasselblad in Space [5]

Hasselblad and NASA’s journey together began in 1962 during the Mercury program. Prospective NASA astronaut and photography enthusiast Walter Schirra had his own Hasselblad 500C with a Planar f/2.8, 80mm lens
After buying a few 500Cs, a weight-loss program followed including removal of its leather covering, auxiliary shutter, reflex mirror, and viewfinder. A new film magazine was constructed in order to allow for 70 exposures instead of the usual 12
The streamlined Hasselblad would find itself in the payload for Mercury 8 (MA-8) in October 1962. The successful, high quality images that Schirra captured across his six orbits of the Earth would spark a new chapter in the history of Hasselblad and a long, close and mutually beneficial cooperation between the American space agency and the Swedish camera manufacturer.

How NASA brought color TV to the Moon [6]

It seems only natural that we have video footage of man’s first steps on the Moon — after all, television had become popular in America more than a decade before Apollo 11’s famous broadcast. But a television audience was not a guaranteed passenger on the journey to the lunar surface
Plus, broadcasting from the Moon would pose significant technical challenges.. But a live video signal would not only allow mission controllers a real-time view of the astronauts’ activities, it would also allow the American public — who had funded the program through taxpayer dollars — to come along for the ride
During Apollo’s development, broadcast television cameras were too large, too heavy, and far too power-hungry to feasibly operate in a spacecraft or bring to the lunar surface. A camera capable of transmitting from the Apollo spacecraft and, ultimately, the Moon needed unique and challenging specs: it must be lightweight (6 pounds [2.7 kilograms] or less), consume low power (6 watts), and maintain function within a wide range of temperatures (–250 to +250 degrees Fahrenheit [–157 to 121 degrees Celsius])

National Science and Media Museum [7]

The Moon landing was one of the biggest television events in history, reaching an estimated 650 million viewers. This incredible milestone in broadcasting was the result of years of planning and technological development.
Galileo observed the Moon’s surface through an optical telescope and kept a detailed record of what he saw. His written observations and drawings were published in 1610 in the Sidereus Nuncius, which translates as ‘Starry Messenger’.
These predecessors of cinema often depicted the Moon’s surface with surprising accuracy.. In the 20th century, our fascination with the skies became a cultural and political phenomenon

Photography During Apollo [8]

At the beginning of the space program hardly anyone thought of photographs from space as anything more than a branch of industrial photography. There were pictures of the spaceships, and launches, and of astronauts in training, but these were all pictures taken on the ground.
An Ansco Autoset 35mm camera, manufactured by Minolta, was purchased in a local drug store and hastily modified so the astronaut could use it more easily while in his pressure suit. At the time, everything that John Glenn did was deemed an experiment
Photography was deemed nothing more than a recreational extra.. Not only was little expected of those first pictures taken from space, but there was serious concern that taking pictures of other nations from orbit would be seen as an act of ill will and even one of war, as sovereign and sensitive nations might resent having pictures taken from orbit

First live lunar television broadcast [9]

Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the Moon on 20 July 1969. NASA used technology first developed in 1928 by the Scottish innovator John Logie Baird to develop a small, robust television camera that enabled the live broadcast from this mission.
Electronic colour television cameras of the time were far too complex, big and heavy to be carried in the lunar module.. Engineers reverted to using an earlier mechanical system to produce a small, low power, robust camera
The solution relied on a small disk rotating ten times a second to scan images through red, green and blue filters. The transmission signal to Earth only carries the three sets of black and white images plus a synchronising pulse.

How We Saw Armstrong’s First Steps [10]

As we approach the 50th anniversary of humankind’s first steps on the Moon, our ability to reflect on those events is thanks in part to how the moment was shared with people around the world. The Apollo 11 mission was not the first time television signals returned from the orbit of the Moon, but the landing in July 1969 was by far the most important to get just right
Based on the rotation of the Earth and position of the Moon at the time of the expected first steps, Houston, Texas, the home of NASA’s mission control, would be out of range for reception of the television signal sent from the lunar module. Instead, receiving stations in California and Australia would coordinate on providing the best transmission possible
And sharing this moment with the world through television was a priority, as magazine and newspaper subscriptions were on the decline and televisions were in 95% of homes in the United States. Despite the challenges, the broadcast was, of course, a major success, with over 500 million viewers globally, which was actually only 14% of the world’s population at the time of 3.5 billion

Apollo 15 Mission Photography Overview [11]

Camera Equipment | Orbital Photography | Surface Photography. The Apollo 15 mission was designed to obtain the most extensive quantity and variety of photography of any mission thus far
The camera equipment operated on the lunar surface or in the LM by astronauts Scott and Irwin included three 70-millimeter Hasselblad Data Cameras (HDC, LM1, LM2), a 16-millimeter Data Acquisition Camera (DAC), and a color TV camera (LM4), or Lunar SurfaceTV camera. The main photographic tasks during orbit were performed with the Mapping Camera System and the Panoramic Camera, which were in the SIM bay
The RCA television camera (LM4) used on the lunar surface could be operated from three different positions–mounted on the LM modularized equipment storage assembly (MESA), mounted on a tripod and connected to the LM by a cable, and installed on the LRV with signal transmission through the lunar communication relay unit. While on the LRV, the camera was mounted on the ground-controlled television assembly

50 Years After the Moonwalk: Looking Back at Apollo 11’s Broadcast from the Moon [12]

Fifty years ago, the Apollo 11 spacecraft left the launchpad and began its mission to the Moon with astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins. Previous posts on the Unwritten Record covered the intense training undertaken by the prime crew, including 1/6th gravity simulations and lunar lander flight tests spanning several months leading up to the launch
But it wasn’t until the summer of 1969 that the world got to see this hard work come to fruition, broadcast live on television for all to watch in real time.. Live moving images of the Apollo 11 mission were made possible by contracts with the American electronics companies RCA and Westinghouse
When the “Eagle” landed on the Moon’s surface on July 20th, video of Astronaut Armstrong’s egress from the Lunar Module was captured by the Westinghouse camera. One might wonder how the camera was already in position by the time Armstrong took those historic first steps

Apollo 11 mission : Destination Moon for Angénieux ! [13]

On July 20, 2019 in the US, July 21 in France, the world celebrates the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission. The retransmission of the incredible images of the success of this mission remains one of the most significant broadcast events of all time
The Angenieux 6×25 zoom mounted on a Westinghouse camera and Angenieux 75mm prime lens on a Maurer 16mm camera were on-board the command module of Apollo 11.. Its mission: to send a crew of three men to the moon, two of them reaching the surface of the Moon, and to bring them all back safe and sound, using the largest rocket ever built, the Saturn V, with the ability to launch two space modules (the Command Module and the Lunar Module)
Apollo 7, in October, 1968, was the first new manned mission after Apollo 1. Six of the following Apollo missions (11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17) reached the Moon.

Astonishing AI restoration brings Apollo moon landing films up to speed [14]

Astronauts on NASA’s Apollo missions to the moon captured astounding movies of the lunar surface, but recent enhancements with artificial intelligence (AI) have really made the films out of this world.. In remastered movies shared online by by DutchSteamMachine, a YouTube channel run by a film restoration specialist in the Netherlands, details from lunar scenes are astonishingly crisp and vivid; from mission commander Neil Armstrong’s first steps on the moon in 1969 to bumpy lunar rover drives during Apollo 15 and 16 in 1971 and 1972, respectively.
Related: Can machines be creative? Meet 9 AI ‘artists’. The Apollo program launched 11 lunar spaceflight missions between 1968 and 1972; of those, four missions tested equipment and six landed on the moon, allowing 12 men to walk, drive and/or leap over the dusty, cratered lunar surface, according to NASA
When old films shot at a lower frame rate are displayed at higher rates, the motion appears sped-up and jittery, “which creates a disconnect between the past and the person watching it,” Niels told Live Science in an email.. “I use an open-source artificial intelligence that has been ‘trained’ with example footage to generate entirely new frames between real ones,” Niels said

1969 Moon Landing [15]

On July 20, 1969, American astronauts Neil Armstrong (1930-2012) and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin (1930-) became the first humans ever to land on the moon. About six-and-a-half hours later, Armstrong became the first person to walk on the moon
Kennedy (1917-1963) announced a national goal of landing a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s. Apollo 17, the final manned moon mission, took place in 1972.
At the time, the United States was still trailing the Soviet Union in space developments, and Cold War-era America welcomed Kennedy’s bold proposal. In 1966, after five years of work by an international team of scientists and engineers, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted the first unmanned Apollo mission, testing the structural integrity of the proposed launch vehicle and spacecraft combination.

Apollo 17: Inside NASA’s Final Moon Landing Mission [16]

A little more than three years after Neil Armstrong took mankind’s first steps on the moon, Apollo 17 astronauts left the last footprints on the lunar surface in December of 1972. Described by NASA as “the last, longest, and most successful” of the manned lunar landing missions, Apollo 17 yielded significant scientific discoveries and produced one of the most famous images in history of planet Earth.
The mission began on December 7, 1972 when, at 33 minutes past midnight, the engines of a Saturn V rocket erupted and bathed Florida’s Cape Canaveral in an orange glow. As night turned to day, the fireball blinded spectators who came to see Apollo 17 roar skyward.
The Apollo 17 crew included commander Eugene Cernan, command module pilot Ronald Evans and lunar module pilot Harrison “Jack” Schmitt—the first astronaut originally trained as a scientist to soar into space.. A geologist with a doctorate from Harvard University, Schmitt had been among six scientists selected from a pool of 1,400 applicants to join the astronaut corps in 1965

Apollo 11: ‘The greatest single broadcast in television history’ [17]

Apollo 11: ‘The greatest single broadcast in television history’. The mesmerising television coverage of the Apollo 11 Moon landing 50 years ago brought previously unthinkable images and ideas into the homes of millions, leaving a profound impact on pop culture and the American psyche.
Walter Cronkite, anchoring the CBS network coverage of the Apollo 11 mission, was initially left speechless. Eventually he managed to exclaim, “Man on the Moon!…Oh, boy…Whew, boy!”
Nevertheless, the overall quality and erudite tenor of Cronkite’s round-the-clock coverage, as part of an energised and extremely dedicated media effort, had a lasting influence on public perceptions of the mission, with the result that it is all too easy to look back through rose-tinted glasses and miss some of the finer, more problematic details.. In the run up to CBS’ coverage, Robert Wussler, Cronkite’s producer, told Variety magazine that it would be “the world’s greatest single broadcast” in television history.

Apollo 11 | History, Mission, Landing, Astronauts, Pictures, Spacecraft, & Facts [18]

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.. – Buzz Aldrin Neil Armstrong Michael Collins Katherine Johnson
Apollo 11 was the culmination of the Apollo program and a massive national commitment by the United States to beat the Soviet Union in putting people on the Moon. All told, 24 Apollo astronauts visited the Moon and 12 of them walked on its surface
From the time of its launch on July 16, 1969, until the return splashdown on July 24, almost every major aspect of the flight of Apollo 11 was witnessed via television by hundreds of millions of people in nearly every part of the globe. The pulse of humanity rose with the giant, 111-metre- (363-foot-) high, 3,038,500-kg (6,698,700-pound) Saturn V launch vehicle as it made its flawless flight from Pad 39A at Cape Kennedy (now Cape Canaveral), Florida, before hundreds of thousands of spectators

Ask An Earth and Space Scientist [19]

The Apollo 11 mission was an important event for the United States and the world. Astronauts Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong climbed down the ladder of the lunar module and onto the surface of the moon
Overall, there was a lot of excitement about landing on the moon. And while what was happening was discussed on the local news, it was fun for people to see for themselves
To achieve this, the Apollo 11 mission included a camera on the mission so that both NASA and the world could see the crew as they prepared for the moon landing, and the landing itself. Three total transmissions were made between the ship and Earth to share the journey.

Every Mission to the Moon, Ever [20]

It only takes a couple days to send most spacecraft to the Moon, so it’s not surprising that humans have sent more missions there than anywhere else. The Moon is also the only celestial body besides Earth where humans have visited.
By studying it, scientists can piece together Earth’s origin story.. ISRO’s mission to the Moon’s south polar region will deepen our understanding of the Moon.
The spacecraft’s science payload includes a NASA-provided instrument called ShadowCam.. The NASA-funded and Advanced Space-led CAPSTONE spacecraft intends to prove the feasibility of the unique fuel-saving elliptical lunar orbit that the NASA-led international Gateway station will use later this decade.

50th anniversary of the moon landing [21]

On July 20 1969, a dream became reality: humans landed on the moon for the first time.. The limits of what is possible were redefined, with a footprint becoming the symbol of this outstanding achievement
Thousands of engineers and technicians from all imaginable disciplines and countries got involved.. ZEISS became part of this challenge: camera lenses specially designed for space, which captured the iconic images of this monumental achievement.
Around 30,000 images were captured during the Apollo missions between 1962 and 1972. Today these images from the moon missions are still resonating throughout generations, in part due to their exceptional quality.

Space Imaging [22]

Kodak teamed with NASA on space science and remote sensing missions for more than 40 years.. When John Glenn became the first American to orbit the earth, Kodak Film recorded his reactions to traveling through space at 17,400 miles per hour
The company was involved with other historic moments as well.. In the mid-sixties, NASA launched a series of five Lunar Orbiter spacecraft that collectively photographed 99% of the moon’s surface in preparation for an Apollo moon landing
The system took photographs, processed and scanned the film, and converted imagery into a continuous video signal for pickup by Kodak-built receivers on Earth. At that time, it was the most complex instrumentation payload ever launched aboard a spacecraft

which mission provided the first color video images from the surface of the moon?
22 which mission provided the first color video images from the surface of the moon? Tutorial


  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_TV_camera#:~:text=A%20color%20camera%20%E2%80%93%20using%20a,North%20American%20standard%2030%20fps.
  2. https://www.rmg.co.uk/stories/topics/how-many-people-have-walked-on-moon#:~:text=The%20first%20crewed%20mission%20to,six%20hours%20and%2045%20minutes.
  3. https://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_11/samples/#:~:text=Apollo%2011%20mainly%20collected%20basalts,of%20the%20Apollo%2011%20mission.
  4. https://abcnews.go.com/Technology/artemis-ii-team-including-1st-woman-1st-person/story?id=98326811#:~:text=Interest%20Successfully%20Added-,Artemis%20II%20astronauts%2C%20including%201st%20woman%20and%201st%20person%20of,the%20lunar%20flyby%20in%202024.&text=Four%20astronauts%20are%20making%20history,in%20more%20than%2050%20years.
  5. https://www.hasselblad.com/about/history/hasselblad-in-space/#:~:text=HASSELBLAD%20ON%20THE%20MOON&text=A%20silver%20Hasselblad%20Data%20Camera,attached%20to%20astronaut%20Armstrong’s%20chest.
  6. https://www.astronomy.com/observing/how-nasa-brought-color-tv-to-the-moon/
  7. https://www.scienceandmediamuseum.org.uk/objects-and-stories/moon-to-living-room-apollo-11-broadcast
  8. https://history.nasa.gov/apollo_photo.html
  9. https://www.nms.ac.uk/explore-our-collections/stories/science-and-technology/first-lunar-broadcast/
  10. https://airandspace.si.edu/stories/editorial/how-we-saw-armstrongs-first-steps
  11. https://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_15/photography/
  12. https://unwritten-record.blogs.archives.gov/2019/07/16/50-years-after-the-moonwalk-looking-back-at-apollo-11s-broadcast-from-the-moon/
  13. https://blog.angenieux.com/apollo-11-mission-destination-moon-for-ang%C3%A9nieux-
  14. https://www.space.com/moon-landing-footage-remastered.html
  15. https://www.history.com/topics/1960s/moon-landing-1969
  16. https://www.history.com/news/apollo-17-moon-landing
  17. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-48857752
  18. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Apollo-11
  19. https://askanearthspacescientist.asu.edu/top-question/moon-landing
  20. https://www.planetary.org/space-missions/every-moon-mission
  21. https://www.zeiss.com/corporate/en/c/global-campaigns/50-years-moon-landing.html
  22. https://www.kodak.com/en/company/page/space-imaging-history/
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